MIND (citta) VS. CONSCIOUSNESS (vinnana) in Buddhist doctrine. Lessons for maras children such as RAHULA

The consciousness (vinnana) and the mind (citta) in Buddhism
[Refuting Theravada materialism and reestablishing Buddhist
Copyright 2003 by webmaster attan.com

The most comprehensive scriptural examination of consciousness in
Buddhist scripture to date.

1. What is the vinnana (consciousness)?
One cannot find the mind (citta) within the objectified
consciousness (vinnana) nor could one find a consciousness which has
become 'unestablished', for the very meaning of consciousness itself
in Buddhism is that it resides within and is codependent upon other
for its very existence and definition. [SN 2.104] "The consciousness
turns and processions back, it goes no further than namo-rupa (name
and form)." Citta (mind) imbued with avijja (nescience) is inchoate by
means of the causeless condition (initially) of avijja, wherein the
citta manifests itself as a mutable phenomena which is corporeally
consubstantial, that being vinnana (consciousness) therein name and
form (namo-rupa, psycho-physicality) are contacted. Reflective,
agnosis, a-vijja, and inchoate are all terms which define the very
meaning of vinnana (as it is by its own definition [Vi (re-'flective')
nana (gnosis]). The immutable nonphenomenal citta is that mind which
is Self-same (samma') or inherently cohate with itself given wisdom's
fruition and perfection of the jhanic method. Technically, according
to sutta, it is the citta which transmigrates (sandhavati). [DN 1.81;
Saggathavagga-Att. 1.184]; but the vinnana as the reflective and
consubstantial citta which re-incarnates or re-invigorates the psycho-
physical therein denoting an entity [MN 1.296, Dhp. #41]. Inchoate
mind (citta + nescience) inevitably leads manifestation as vinnana
within and upon name and form, thereby manifesting and identifying
with a new entity bound to samsara and conjoined within a closed loop
of composite flux whose nature is change and suffering by definition.
Just as both the light of the sun and the light of the moon are one
and the same (one subjective [citta] and one objective and reflective
[vinnana]) one is immutable while the other is mutable, therein
ignorant beings are unable to differentiate a subject from its
attributers and still designate 'sunlight' as differentiated from
'moonlight'. The wave (vinnana) has both shape and form (namo-rupa)
and is a 'defilement' of water (citta) such that it arises, in
addition to being dependent upon water, as its attributes, for its
very existence. Water however, as a first without a second, in this
analogy, is inherently both the subject and unattributed "ground" of
being. Ultimately there are only three things which are at the same
time one actuosity alone, that being the mutable phenomenal (namo-rupa
or reflective mind (vinnana) or attributes bourn of avijja, or
conventional 'self'), the mutable nonphenomenal (inchoate mind leading
to vinnana, mind imbued with the condition of avijja), and the
immutable nonphenomenal (choate or coherent mind imbued with gnosis
bourn of insight and wisdom's fruition, which is Soulhood,
Sammavimutta, 'Selfhood', or True-nature [svabhava]). When examined,
all things as well as perfection and transmigration (samsara) are
bourne by the sheer actuosity of mind's productivity alone which is
either driven by possession with the conditionless attribute of
nescience imbued upon the unmanifest citta to one degree or another or
its absence altogether (Selfhood).
So, firstly, how does suttta define the vinnana? [SN 3.45]
"Vinnana is impermanent. What is impermanent is suffering." [SN 3.61]
"The Aryan Eightfold Path is for making cessation of Vinnana,...that
being sammaditthi....sammasamadhi." [SN 3.195] "Vinnana is Mara (evil),
and at [SN 3.196 among thousands of other occurrences] vinnana is
anatta (not the Soul)." [SN 2.249] "What do you think Rahula, is form,
feelings perception, impulses, experience, and consciousness permanent
or impermanent? Impermanent venerable Lord! Seeing thusly Rahula, the
Aryan disciple has but disgust towards form, feelings, perfections,
impulses and consciousness." [SN 2.66] "When one does not incline to,
nor mentates (ceteti), nor decides upon, and is without a tendency
towards (phenomena); therein there is no basis (arammanam)
establishment for consciousness (to exist)." This passage shows the
active mind (ceteti) is prior to and the basis (arammanam) for
consciousness to find a foothold in namo-rupa." [SN 2.91]
"Consciousness is compared to the sap of a tree (sava, or oozing, i.e.
taints) which goes upwards into the tree which leads to fruit
(transmigration)." [SN 2.104] "When name and form is manifest so too
is consciousness; consciousness has name and form for its
condition." [MN 1.292] "Consciousness, consciousness it is said
friend. Relative to what is the word consciousness spoken? It
discerns, it discerns friend. This is what consciousness is said to
be. What does it discriminate? It discriminates pleasures, suffering,
and neither suffering nor pleasure." [SN 3.87] "And why is it called
consciousness? It discerns, hence it is called consciousness. It
discerns sourness, bitterness, pungentness, sweetness, sharpness,
etc." [Patisambhidamagga-Att. 1.98] "Mind is to be reflected upon by
gnosis. Consciousness (merely) discerns." [MN 1.293] "What is the
difference, friend, between wisdom and consciousness; in these two
that are presently conjoined, not disconjoined? The difference,
friend, between wisdom and consciousness; in these two that are
presently conjoined, not disconjoined is that wisdom is to be made to
grow whereas consciousness is only to be fully comprehended." [MN
1.293] "Feelings, perceptions and consciousness are conjoined not
disconjoined. It is impossible to discern any one of them from another
to describe the difference between them since what one feels one
perceives, and what one perceives one discriminates." [DN 3.228] "For
places for consciousness to become fixed. 1. in form 2. in feelings 3.
in perceptions 4. and in experiences." [DN 3. 243] "Six types of
consciousness. 1. eye-consciousness 2. ear 3. nose 4. tongue 5. body
6. and mental-consciousness (manovinnana)." [SN 2.104] "The
consciousness turns and processions back, it goes no further than namo-
rupa (name and form)." [SN 2.104 footnote #177 by Bhikkhu Bodhi;
wisdom publ. p.777] "It is possible the bodhisatta had been seeking a
self of the Upanishadic type, a self-subsistent subject consisting of
pure consciousness (mine: which would be a visuddhiya-vinnnana which
is a philosophical impossibility) that requires nothing but itself in
order to exist. His discovery that consciousness is invariably
dependent on name and form would have disclosed to him the futility of
such a quest and thereby shown that even consciousness, the subtlest
basis for a sense of self (incorrect, grand error), is conditioned and
thus marked by anicca, dukkha, and anatta." Once again the Theravada
fail to realize the codependent nature of consciousness and that its
negation in sutta as a perdurable and autonomous entity in no way
negates the incorporeal mind which is freed (vimutta) from the five
attributes of corporeal and aggregated existence within samsara. [MN
1.141] "What do you suppose, followers, if people were carrying off
into the Jeta grove bunches of sticks, grasses, branches, and leaves
and did with them as they wished or burned them up, would it occur to
you: These people are carrying us off, are doing as they please with
us, and are burning us? No, indeed not Lord. And how so? Because Lord,
none of that is our Soul, nor what our Soul subsists upon! Just so
followers, what is not who you are, do away with it, when you have
made done with that, it will lead to your bliss and welfare for as
long as time lasts. What is that which is not who you are? Form,
followers, is not who you are, neither are sensations, perceptions,
experiences, nor consciousness."

2. The Vinnana or the citta as transmigrant.
Now to examine the citta and the vinnana and discern which one is
the true transmigrant, if any, and why there is so much confusion. [SN
4.400] "At that time, Vaccha, when a being has laid down this body,
and that being (satto) has not yet taken up another (annataram) body
(kayam) in rebirth (anupapanno); therein I declare [that beings] fuel
to be thirstfulness (tanhupadanam). At that time, Vaccha, I declare
[the being's] fuel to be thirstfulness." Bhikkhu Bodhi's footnote to
this passage says: [SN 4.00 footnote #382 by Bhikkhu Bodhi; wisdom
publ. p.382] "The Buddha's statement seems to imply a temporal gap can
intervene between the death moment and reconception. Since this
contradicts Theravada orthodoxy (hilarious note of being crestfallen)...
Atthakatha contends that at the death moment itself the being is said
to be 'not yet reborn' because the rebirth-consciousness has not yet
arisen." In actuality here, Bhikkhu Bodhi is lying in saying that the
Atthakatha mentions a "rebirth-consciousness (vinnana)", but in fact
the Atthakatha in question says: [SN 4.400-Att. (3.114)]
"pat.isandhicittassa" or "the reestablished i.e. transmigrant mind
(citta)". Theravada attempts to reinvent Buddhism to accord with its
own anti-foundational and materialistic views within the Milindapanha
(non-Buddhistic work) at: [Milinda #40] "Just so O' king, is the
continuity of a person or thing maintained. One comes into being,
another passes away; and the rebirth is simultaneous." This simile of
Samsaric 'rebirth' is explained as 'one flame to another' without gap
or interim which is not the view of Nikayan (presectarian) Buddhism.
The admission by Theravada of an autonomous entity which, after death,
is in between khandic psycho-physical (corporeal) involvement is
altogether too much for Theravada to admit to since this would be a
full rejection of Theravada itself i.e. Abhidhammic dogmatic nihilism
which runs contrary to and opposite that of the Nikayas themselves.
Any philosopher worth a nickel might presume to ask the materialistic
Theravada if "the fire lights itself, like unto a spontaneous and
causeless combustion." The supreme-man who is immeasurable in sutta,
which would signify him who is cittavimutta (emancipated in mind) is
signified in the following passage as the unseen, or unmanifest
consciousness: [DN 1.223] "You ask where phenomena cease without
remainder. On the contrary one should ask the question as such: Where
do the elements find no establishment? How is it that name and form
are wholly destroyed? With a consciousness that is unmanifest
(anidassanam), one is incalculable (anantam, without end) and from
every angle (sabbato) unobjectified (pabhavo). This is where the
elements find no establishment. That is where name and form are wholly
The one passage everyone seems to quote, in opposition and hatred
to the notion durable and incorporeal transmigrant is the Majjhima
Nikaya passage often referred to as "Sati's heresy"; but in closer
philosophical examination its well evident why Sati commits an error
in presuming that the consubstantial aggregate of vinnana
(consciousness) is the transmigrant. This is the often quoted "Sati's
heresy" passage: [MN 1.258] "As I understand the Lord's Dhamma as he
has instructed it, it is this very consciousness that transmigrates
(sandhavati) through samsara and not another. What is this
consciousness that you speak of Sati? Lord, it is that which talks,
interacts, and feels here and there the results of good or bad Karma
(sassatavada heresy, or codependent perpetualism devoid of positing a
nexus of impetus and origination). Ignorant fool, who are you to say I
have ever instructed the Dhamma in such a fashion as which you say?
You ignorant fool, have I not said many times that contingently
manifested is consciousness, since without a contingent factor
consciousness cannot come to be?" The suttic explanations for the
notion of consciousness an "inter-aggregate" transmigrant is as
follows: [Nida'navagga-Att. 2.55] "The reestablished consciousness is
contingent; the reestablished consciousness is dependent upon name and
form." [Pat.isambhida'magga-Att. 1.111] "The impressed and fixed
(thita) consciousness is reestablished consciousness
(pat.isandhiviñña'n.assa)." [Suttanipata-Att. 1.277] "Karma is the
field, consciousness is the seed [also at: AN 3.77, AN 1.223]; this is
meant that the reestablished consciousness devoid of karma is no
longer a seed." The seed planted is the seed impressed within the
field of the world. That which impresses is itself apart from the
impression which is composite and contingent upon that which it is
impressed upon, namely namo-rupa. [Nida'navagga-Att. 2.115] "How is it
that one discerns how consciousness has come out, how it comes to be?
By antecedent-insight of the consciousness is how the reestablished
consciousness is discerned. Hence the reestablished consciousness as
contingent is seen as to how it comes out, how it comes to be
(established), that by antecedent-insight is seen the foundation of
consciousness." [Nida'navagga-Att. 2.26] "Consciousness is the basis
for the reestablishment of namo-rupa, thus is said 'reestablished
consciousnesses." The error Sati makes is in presuming that the
vinnana transmigrates (sandhavati), rather than understanding the
Buddha's position [SN 3.53] which is that the vinnana either becomes
established or it does not, dependent upon a preset order of
conditions originating with avijja (nescience) which is inherent and
causeless. Being codependent upon namo-rupa, it is impossible for the
aggregate of vinnana to transmigrate (sandhavati) but it is not a
heresy to claim that vinnana itself is that which gives animation,
shape and form to the inanimate matter we deem to be "ourselves" which
is merely 'self' (psycho-physical), but confused with The Self (attan,
Soul) by the ignorant and layfolk whom Gotama often encounters and
The heresy of vinnana, which is both actor and acted upon is a
perpetualism duality which Sati proclaims as well as most others whom
Gotama encounters: [SN 2.113] "Consciousness is not created by oneself
(sayam), nor is it created by another, nor has it arisen by chance,
being created neither by oneself or another, but rather with name and
form as the contingency, consciousness has come to be (the reciprocal
is also true in sutta)." [SN 2.17] "This world is carried on by a
duality (dvayanissito); which are: #1. 'Being (sat, atthiti [views of
either sabbamatthi 'the all is entirety', and sabbamekattan 'the all
is one's Soul' [SN 2.77] both are heresies of perpetualism])' and #2.
'Nonbeing (asat, natthiti [views of either sabbamnatthi 'the all is
ultimately not' (atomism), and sabbam puthuttan 'the all is merely
composite (atoms)' [SN 2.77] both are heresies of
It is clear enough that the citta which is impressed upon the
womb of the being to be "reestablished" in this world is none other
than the vinnana. Errors made by C.A.F. Rhys Davids, G.C. Pande and
others have mistaken the following passages with an older 'pre-
khandhic' or 'proto-buddhism' which runs contrary to the "five
aggregates as anicca, dukkha, and anatta" standard in sutta, however,
just like the "unestablished vinnana" passages, nothing more intricate
is posited in [DN .263] and [MN 1.296] and others passages like it
than the codependent and reflective citta, as vinnana, is the point
of animation as well as the point of its departure marking the time of
death. [DN 2.63] "If consciousness did not come (established) into the
mother's womb, would namo-rupa come to be? No Lord. If consciousness
had come into the womb of the mother and then divert away from it,
would then namo-rupa come to renewed reincarnation? No Lord, it would
not." [MN 1.261] "Followers, there are four nourishments for those
beings who have come to be as they are and for those who are about to
emerge. Material food, either course or fine firstly, contact as
second, mentation by the mind as third, and consciousness as
fourth." [SN 2.11] "What four things are the basis for the maintenance
of beings here or about to be established? Food and nutriment,
contact, mentation, and lastly consciousness." The 'stream of
consciousness' passage so often referred to means nothing other,
according to atthakatha, than the vinnana which is perpetually
reestablished by the fool in samsara, and is likened to a "stream",
but not that consciousness itself is an unbroken stream in the
absolute sense that vinnana itself is the transmigrant which is so
often denied in the Nidanavagga and Khandhavagga of the Samyutta. [DN
3.105] "He comes to know the unbroken stream of consciousness which is
established in this world and the next...he comes to know the unbroken
stream of consciousness which is unestablished in this world and the
next." [Pa'thikavagga-Att. 3.888] "Stream of consciousness means only
consciousness itself." [MN 1.296] "Friend, when this body is left of
how many things does it lie there like an unconscious piece of wood?
When it is bereft of three things, this body lies there like an
unconscious piece of wood: vigor (a'yu), heat (usma), and
consciousness (vinnana)." [MN 1.296 footnote #447 by Bhikkhu Bodhi;
wisdom publ. p.1237] "The departure of consciousness from the body is
not sufficient to constitute death; vitality and vital heat must also
perish." What Bhikkhu Bodhi here fails to realize in his great
ignorance, is that just as warmth, illumination, and light leave a
form; all that actually left was the light alone which both warmed and
illuminated a form upon striking it. Vigor (a'yu), heat (usma), and
consciousness (vinnana) represent one thing alone, that being vinnana,
whose attributes are vigor (a'yu), and heat (usma) when vinnana makes
contact with form. [Dhammapada #41] states succinctly, in
contradiction to Bhikkhu Bodhi, that: [Dhp. #41] "The body is "dead
wood" when "deprived of vinnana (consciousness)". At [DN 2.335] the
vigor (a'yu), heat (usma), and consciousness (vinnana) is analogous to
"blazing, burning, and glowing (consciousness)", and at [DN 2.338] is
analogous to "man, effort, and wind (consciousness)".
So the question remains, if in fact the suttas themselves point
out that the citta is the transmigrant: [Nida'navagga-Att. 2.28] "The
transmigrating mind (reestablished) connected with contact (with
phenomena) therein becomes the consciousness.", also:
[Patisambhidamagga-Att. 3.572] "The transmigrant (reestablished) mind
(citta) becomes (at corporeal contact) the aggregate of Vinnana
(point: reflectively and consubstantially so)." The mind is said to be
the "maker" (cittakara) in analogy at [SN 2.102, SN 3.152], and
literally as "mind-made puppet" at [Dhp. #147]; all of which are
synonymous with attakara (Soul-mover) at [AN 3.337, DN 1.53]. Sati's
error in presuming that the vinnana transmigrates (sandhavati) rather
than simply become reestablished (pat.isandhiviñña'n.a') is replaced
by the true transmigrant in the following passage which shows that it
is the citta that passes in and out of becoming, in samsara:
[Sal.a'yatanavagga-Att. 3.35] "The mind (citta) is that by which the
being transmigrates (sandhavati) through samsara." [Itivuttaka-Att.
1.57] "It is the mind (citta) which transmigrates (sandhavati); the
very mind which goes round, such said that, imbued with karma [it goes
through] samsara." [SN 1.37] "What is it that gives rise to the
purisha (person), what is it that goes round about (samsara)? What is
it that treads within samsara, what is ones greatest fear?" Gotama
replies: "It's craving that gives rise to the purisha, and the mind
(citta) that goes round (transmigrant). The being is him who treads
within samsara, and suffering which is ones greatest fear." Most
certainly the greatest proof is that: [DN 1.81] "With the purified
mind (citta) he recollects his former lives." The following passages
sharply contrasts the perfect mind of the Tathagata which is
'vimuttacitta', as being the grounds for the gods on high being unable
to discern the establishment of his vinnana, since with such a mind,
taintless, without grasping, and without sign, there is no grounds for
being able to make any declaration about the vinnana of such a one so
perfectly coherent in mind: [MN 1.140] With the emancipated mind of a
follower, followers, neither the god Indra, nor Brahma' devas, nor
Pajapati can discern him, [bemusing themselves that] "This is the
basis for the Tathagata's consciousness." How is this so? Within this
Dhamma, followers, the Tathagata is without any mark by which to make
a claim about him." [Udana #46] "The follower with quelled mind has
cut off rebirth. For such a one there is no more rebecoming." [AN
4.448] "Liberation of mind is unshakable, this is my last birth, there
is no more rebecoming."

3. The 'unestablished consciousness'.
Now we come to the "unestablished mind" versus the "unestablished
consciousness" and their relationship in scripture and meaning. [SN
1.122, SN 3.124] "With an unestablished (appatitthitena) consciousness
(vinnana), the son of our clan, Godhika, has obtained Parinibbana";
the commentary to this passage is as follows: [Saggathavagga-Att.
1.184] "(Mara was) looking for the reestablished mind
(pat.isandhicittam.)." [SN 1.122 footnote #314 by Bhikkhu Bodhi;
wisdom publ. p. 421] "When the monk is said to attain final Nibbana
(parinibbana) with consciousness unestablished, this should not be
understood to mean that after death consciousness survives in an
'unestablished' condition; for enough texts make it plain that with
the passing away of the arahant consciousness too ceases and no longer
exists." In fact the following refutes Bhikkhu Bodhi as per his claim:
[SN 2.102-104] "Suppose there was a house or a hall with a roof and
widows on the north, east, and south sides. When the sun rose and a
beam of light entered through the window, where would it become
established? On the western well venerable. And if there were no
western wall, where then would it become established? On the ground
venerable. And if there were no ground there, where would it become
established? On the waters venerable. And if there were no waters
either, where then would it become established? In that case,
venerable, it would become established nowhere (no topographically or
phenomenally discernable location). So too, followers, if there is no
lust after food, lust after nutriment, lust after contact, lust after
mentation, and lastly lust after consciousness, then consciousness
itself is without establishment (appatit.t.hitam. tattha viñña'n.am.
aviru'l.ham.); (there are ten occurrences of 'established', and
'unestablished' consciousness in this sutta as per mind [the light
ray] being unestablished on namo-rupa, therein being vinnana)."
Bhikkhu Bodhi's commentary to this passage is: [SN 2.104 footnote #174
by Bhikkhu Bodhi; wisdom publ. p.775] "The sunbeam does exist, but
because there is no place for it settle it is said to be
unestablished. The present passage is clearly speaking of the arahants
consciousness while he is alive. Its purport is not that an
'unestablished consciousness' remains after the arahants parinibbana."
Amazingly enough, Bhikkhi Bodhi is incoherent with himself within the
very same footnote, but most importantly he fails to realize that the
'unestablished vinnana' is none other than the mind (citta) itself.
Also: [Nettippakaran.apa'l.i #154] "When there is no establishment of
consciousness present, this is meant 'the unestablished consciousness'
wherein there is no more transmigration, of coming again to
be." [Nettippakaran.apa'l.i #57] "No longer food to sustain, no more
taints, nor thirsts, this is the meaning of 'unestablished
This rare set of passages proves beyond any doubt that the mind
which has become free is none other than the "unestablished
consciousness": [SN 3.54, SN 3.55, SN 3.58] "Tad appatitthitam
vinnana" is identical to: [SN 3.45] "The mind (citta) being so
liberated and arisen from defilements, one is fixed in the Soul as
liberation, one is quelled in fixation upon the Soul. Quelled in the
Soul one is unshakable. So being unshakable, the very Soul is
parinibbana." This passage, is where the mind (citta) is given the
same equation as: 'appatitthitena vinnana' of [SN 3.54] (unestablished
consciousness); hence the "emancipated mind (citta)" of [SN 3.45] is
interchangeable and equal to that of 'appatitthitena vinnana' by
certain scriptural definition, not to mention being philosophically
coherent. The very heart of the matter that the materialistic and
philosophically ignorant Theravada have yet to grasp, is that the
unobjectified and "unestablished" consciousness is no longer the
phenomenal consciousness but the very subject of liberation itself,
that of the dynamic mind purified by Samadhi and wisdom fulfilled;
just as light which has not become established upon any thing
(phenomena) is both "unestablished (incorporeal, incomposite) light
(appatitthitena vinnana)", as well as "emancipated light (mind)"
simultaneously. There is no such existence of the vinnana apart from
that which is illumined (invigorated, with life): [SN 3.53] "If some
(fool) were so proclaim 'Apart from form, feelings, perceptions, and
experiences, I shall make know the coming and going of consciousness
(vinnana), its passing and its rebirth, its growth and increase in
magnitude.' This I say is an impossibility."
The equation for the mind and consciousness in sutta therefore,
is as follows: unestablished (appatitthitena) consciousness (vinnana)
= cittavimutta (liberated mind) = Parinibbana. [SN 5.74]
"Unestablished-mind (appatit.t.hitacitto) the mind is supremely
emancipated and well fixed upon the very Soul." [SN 5.74]
"appatitthitacitto", is the compound which Bhikkhu Bodhi purposefully
mistranslates as "without ill will. [SN 5.74 footnote #69 by Bhikkhu
Bodhi; wisdom publ. p.1904] "(sutra) misreads the second term as
appatitthitacitto whose meaning "an unestablished mind" is exactly the
opposite of what is required." Passages in refutation to Bhikkhu
Bodhi's footnote #69 are: #1. [Theraga'tha'-Att. 2.260]
appatitthitacitto is = na t.hapitacitto (a non-established mind), #2.
[Maha'vagga-Att. 3.146, being the Atthakatha to the (SN 5.74) passage]
"Unestablished-mind (appatit.t.hitacitto) means a mind unfixed upon
defilements.", #3. [Cu'l.aniddesapa'l.i #58] "Unestablished-mind
(appatit.t.hitacitto) the mind is supremely emancipated and well fixed
upon the very Soul.", and #4. [Maha'niddesapa'l.i 1.242]; hence
assuredly Bhikkhu Bodhi's notion that 'appatitthitacitto' is a
'misprint or an anomaly of the B.E. SN', is absurd at best given the
overwhelming evidence to the contrary. The Sinhalese edition of the
Pali Nikayas is a later edition which has many Theravada redactions
found within it, this term being one of them, as compared to the
Burmese edition which is the older of the two wherein
'appatitthitacitto' has numerous occurrences; therein Bhikkhu Bodhi is
proven entirely wrong as to his #69 footnote in reference to [SN
5.74]. The Sinhalese edition of the Pali Nikayas is literally filthy
with Theravada redactions where such words as Mahatta' (great-Soul),
and attan (Soul) have been re-written to imply an entirely different
meaning; the same holds true for 'appatitthitacitto' whose
philosophical implication was far more than the Theravada could
stomach in light of their materialistic and anti-foundational dogma.

4. Citta is not an aggregate.
The main point of differentiation in Buddhism, in contradiction
to Theravada heresy, is that the citta is wholly a separate entity
from the five khandhas as the following passages prove: [DN 1.76]
"This is the quelled and thoroughly purified mind (citta) cleansed,
unblemished, devoid of impurities, pliable, manageable, steadfast,
adamantine, so he directs his mind towards gnosis and vision; such
that he knows: 'This is my body made up of materiality, and the four
great elements, come from mother and father, kept going on rice and
gruel, without permanence, liable to be broken and destroyed, and here
also is my consciousness (vinnana) which is entirely dependent upon
it. (Immediately following this the purified mind is compared to an
exquisitely pure beryl gemstone)." [DN 1.78] The mind (citta) is
compared to a sword drawn from the body as sheath as well as likened
to the subject or medium, being the clay from which the objective is
created, namely the attributes of the five aggregates. [DN 1.76]
Explicitly states that the consciousness is bound to the body whereas
immediately following at [DN 1.77] the mind (citta) is analogous to
the reed which is drawn from the body, being the sheath. [MN 1.436, AN
4.422] "Whatever form there is, feelings, perceptions, experiences, or
consciousness (the five aggregates), these he sees to be without
permanence, as suffering, as ill, as a plague, a boil, a sting, a
pain, an affliction, as foreign, as otherness, as empty (suññato), as
Selfless (anattato). So he turns (pativapeti) his mind (citta, Non-
aggregate) away from these (aggregates); therein he gathers
(upasamharati) his mind within the realm of Immortality. This is
tranquility; this is that which is most excellent!" [MN 1.436
footnote #656 by Bhikkhu Bodhi; wisdom publ. p. 1266] "First he
'directs his mind to it' with the insight consciousness...by making it
an object and penetrating it." Bhikkhu Bodhi's footnote makes the
error in presuming that the mind is both subject and object at the
same time creating a duality. [SN 3.234] The Aggregate Sutra. At
Savatthi "Followers, the desire and lust for formations is a
defilement of the citta, the desire and lust for feelings is a
defilement of the citta, the desire and lust for cognition is a
defilement of the citta, the desire and lust for experiences is a
defilement of the citta, the desire and lust for vinnana is a
defilement of the citta. But, followers, when one abandons the
defilements of the citta regarding these five stations (aggregates),
then ones citta inclines towards renunciation. Ones citta is made
pliable and firm in renunciation by direct gnosis." [MN 1.511] "For a
long time I have been cheated, tricked and hoodwinked by my citta. For
when grasping, I have been grasping onto form, for when grasping, I
have been grasping onto feelings, , for when grasping, I have been
grasping onto perceptions, for when grasping, I have been grasping
onto experiences, for when grasping, I have been grasping onto
consciousness." [Nidanavagga-Att. 2.112] "Contact (is the basis for)
the sankhara-khandha, feeling (is the basis for) feeling-khandha,
perception is the perception-khandha, citta (is the basis for) the
vinnana-khandha, form is the basis for the rupa-khandha."
[SN 2.94] (cittam. itipi, mano itipi, viñña'n.am. itipi)
"herein being the mind, herein mentation, and here being
consciousness." This passage is often quoted by the uneducated who
presume that citta, mano, and vinnana are interchangeable and hence
equal in meaning; nothing could be further from the truth. The mind
(citta) mentates (mano), and when inherently incoherent with the
attribute as condition of nescience (avijja), (leading to causation)
is established consubstantially upon name and form as consciousness
(vinnana); the three being respectively subject (citta), action
(mano), and phenomenal-attribute (vinnana). All three are indeed one
in the same in the absolute sense of mind (citta), however further and
far more acute philosophical comprehension is required to see that the
mind (citta) as subject, objectifies (manosañcetana', cetasa) itself,
or mentates (mano, its active engagement), and as hence becomes
consubstantial upon its adventitious and composite attributes of
phenomena wherein it has become impressed, or established (thita).
Mind (citta) being the signet ring, mentation (mano) the pressing, or
inclination to press (identify with), and vinnana (consciousness)
being the impression upon the wax (psycho-physicality, i.e. namo-
rupa); this is the designation for a human-being composed of
consciousness and namo-rupa. Just as clay and pot, when speaking of
pottery, are entirely inseparable from one another without the others
destruction as well [SN 2.104], or waves without water or a heap
without that which is heaped; this is meant consciousness is
inseparable from that which it has become impressed, or has brought
shape to shapelessness and form to formlessness. Matter itself has
neither shape nor form, its forming factor is the very mind itself
which impresses itself (manosañcetana') upon it due to its agnosis
which perceives and conceives with this (corporality) as "me, who I
am, my Soul". The Atthakatha to this passage is as follows: [SN2-Att.
of 2.94] mind is the triple-jewel, mind is the pasture (foundation),
and mind is that which the Dharma itself is based upon; this is mind
(citta). Mentation (mano) means 'on account that it mentates',
consciousness (vinnana) means 'on account that it discerns". This
sutta at SN 2.94 starts out with an exposition on the puthujjana
(fool) and the mind in context with that very same fool is to be
understood when it is read that: [SN 2.94] "it would be better for the
fool (key point in reference to the fool, and not the wise who
possesses an 'emancipated citta') to take this body for his Soul than
the mind which is one thing by day and another by night since it
(body) lasts for X number of years...whereas the mind (of the fool which
is inchoate) is just like an ape swinging from tree to tree (i.e. mind
going from one thing to another in every millisecond). Bhikkhu Bodhi's
commentary to this passage is": [SN 2.94 footnote #154 by Bhikkhu
Bodhi; wisdom publ. p. 769] "Citta signifies mind as the center of
personal experience, as the subject of thought, volition, and emotion.
It is the citta that needs to be understood, trained and liberated."
This footnote of course is in complete contradiction to a following
one on the same sutta passage: [SN 2.95 footnote #157 by Bhikkhu
Bodhi; wisdom publ. p. 770] "But one citta is not able to endure for a
whole day or a whole night. Even in the time of a finger snap many
hundred of thousands of cittas arise and cease. The point rather, is
that the mind is always dependent upon an object" Firstly there is no
such thing in sutta as "many cittas" and lastly the notion that "citta
is always dependent upon an object" is completely groundless and
contradicted in sutta at: [DN 1.76, MN 1.436] and other passages.
Since Gotama's parinibbana [DN 2.157] is as regards the citta, the
view the materialistic Theravada are making is that the Absolute is
mere absence alone, which is not only a heresy but is without any
discernable coherence to anyone but an atheist or a reductionist
Now let us contrast the mind and the consciousness in two
identical passages and see that citta, under the same rule is
disappeared (atthangamo) whereas the consciousness is subjugated
(nirodha); in fact there is no such thing in Buddhism as the
"subjugation (nirodha) of citta", only of the khandhas (aggregates).
[SN 3.61] "With the arising of name and form is the arising of
consciousness, with the subjugation of name and form is the
subjugation of consciousness. This Aryan eightfold path is tread for
the subjugation (nirodha) of consciousness." [SN 5.184] "With the
appearance of name and form is the appearance of citta, with the
subjugation of name and form is the disappearance (atthangamo) of
citta." [SN 5.184 footnote #181 by Bhikkhu Bodhi; wisdom publ. p.
1928] "In this passage citta is taken to be synonymous with vinnana;
namarupa, being the condition for the later, is the condition for the
former as well. For citta always arises based on the physical organism
(rupa) and in conjunction with contact, feeling, perception, volition,
and attention, the constituents of nama (name)" Bhikkhu Bodhi is in
grand error in his footnote to so ignorantly presume that "citta =
vinnana". Its even amazing that such a "renown" Pali "scholar" such as
Bodhi would presume such a statement in contradiction to sutta, much
less his other footnotes wherein he contradicts himself boldfaced such
as: [SN 5.370] "His mind goes heaven-bound to auspiciousness." Bhikkhu
Bodhi's self contradictory statement to his earlier [SN 5.184]
footnote is: [SN 5.370 footnote #339 by Bhikkhu Bodhi; wisdom publ. p.
1957] "This passage shows citta as the principle of personal
continuity which survives the death of the body and reaps the fruits
of kamma...and by evolving onwards to Nibbana." One surely should also
point out such passages as [DN 1.76, SN 3.234, MN 1.436, AN 4.422] and
others, which prove that the citta is not a aggregate itself.

5. Citta as parinibbana and the basis of the Aryan path.
Most importantly, is that the citta is the very axis of making a
claim of Parinibbana as well as being the entire consummation of the
Aryan path itself: [DN 2.157] "No longer with (subsists by) in-breath
nor out-breath, so is him (Gotama) who is steadfast in mind (citta),
inherently quelled from all desires the mighty sage has passed beyond.
With mind (citta) limitless (Brahma) he no longer bears sensations;
illumined and unbound (nibbana), his mind (citta) is definitely (ahu)
liberated." [SN 3.45] "The mind (citta) being so liberated and arisen
from defilements, one is fixed in the Soul as liberation, one is
quelled in fixation upon the Soul. Quelled in the Soul one is
unshakable. So being unshakable, the very Soul is thoroughly unbound
(parinibbana)." [SN 5.8] "The Aryan Eightfold Path is the path leading
to immortality" [MN 2.265] "This is immortality, that being the
liberated mind (citta) which does not cling (after anything)." [MN2-
Att. 4.68] "This said: 'the liberated mind (citta) which does not
cling (after anything)' means Nibbana." [MN 1.296] "Friend, how many
contingencies are there for the perfection of making unmanifest the
emancipation of mind? Two contingencies: turning away from
determinately manifest phenomena and turning towards the unmanifest
realm (=nibbanadhatuya "realm of Nibbana" [MN1-Att. 2.352])." The
entire Aryan path itself is of the equation of emancipation of mind as
follows: [AN 4.40] "These are the seven prerequisites of Samadhi.
Sammaditthi...sammasati. These are the seven requisites for making the
mind (citta) sovereign which is the Aryan sammasamadhi, those causes,
those prerequisites." [MN 1.301] "What is samadhi for? Samadhi,
friend, is for making the mind (citta) soveriegn. (cittassa
ekaggata')." [SN 5.269] "If one develops a mind (citta) which is based
within Samadhi, then is mind is acquires sovereignty. This is known as
[At.t.hakanipa'ta-Att. 4.196] "This Mind-path (maggacitta) is
that which Nibbana is based upon and subsists, "this is tranquility,
verily that which is most excellent!" This is directly contrasted with
vinnana when it comes to the Aryan path: [SN 3.61] "The Aryan
Eightfold Path is for making cessation of consciousness (vinnana)...that
being sammaditthi....sammasamadhi." The only thing within sutta which is
said to be "taintless" and "without clinging" is the mind (citta). The
following is said "to be without clinging": [DN 2.35, MN 1.501, MN
3.20, SN 3.45, SN 4.48, SN 5.24, AN 1.240, AN 2.155, AN 3.354, AN
4.126, SN 5.233, etc.]. [AN 1.198] "Samma' emancipation (culmination
of the tenfold Aryan Path)...is the unclinging mind (citta) which is
liberated." [MN 3.72] "And what is the Aryan taintless supranormal
path? The Aryan-mind (citta), the Aryan path endowed with the
taintless mind (citta)." [SN 3.83] "Attained the steadfast Soul, their
mind (citta) is calm; they're cleansed of the entire world, taintless
they have become Brahma." [AN 2.29] "Within the sovereign mind one is
established in the supreme Soul." [AN 4.299] "When mind is fixed upon
the Supreme-Soul it is exquisitely steadfast; therein when evil and
unwholesome things arise upon mind they find there nothing to attach
to." Even more hilarious than could be imagined is the Theravada
notion of 'clinging' and 'non-clinging aggregates', as mentioned by
Bhikkhu Bodhi in his Khandhavagga footnote to the SN3 on page. 1060
were he mentions the possibility of "pure aggregates" which of
themselves are "non-clinging". Theravada failed to read the suttas of
Buddhism instead of their Abhidhamma, for if they did so they would
quickly discern that the aggregates are "mara, death, foul, a plague,
a boil, suffering", whereas the citta, the very mind made become
through the elimination of nescience is the immanent and universal
inherent within us all, our Soul, which is the radiant divinity which
is to be sought after.

6. Citta is the Absolute.
The mind is the absolute as illuminated in scripture time and
again: [MN 1.197] "Followers, the Brahma life is not lived for sake of
gains, honors, or acclaim; nor is it lived for virtuousness, nor for
absorptions, nor for gnosis and insight. This Brahma life is lived for
the sole preeminent purpose of emancipation of the mind alone, which
is the quintessential final core." [DN 2.81] "Through perfection of
wisdom's fulfillment the mind is emancipated from all defilements.
That is-desire defilements, becomings defilements, and ignorance
defilements." [DN 2.233] "The light of ones mind." [SN 5.158]
"Maha'puriso, Maha'puriso I hear said venerable. What pray tell does
Mahapuriso mean? A mind emancipated having assimilated the Soul
(vimuttacittatta'), I say Shariputra, this is a Mahapuriso. Without
mind emancipated having assimilated the Soul Shariputra, one is not a
Maha'puriso." [AN 1.282] "He gathers the mind inside the immortal
realm." [MN 1.36] The mind is originally pure. [MN 1.213] "Friend
Shariputra, a follower delights in solitariness, and in delighting in
solitariness he tranquilizes the mind in yoking it to the very Soul,
he does not neglect his jhanas, he is endowed with insights, and
perfectly devoid of the profane." [MN 1.235] "A follower who has an
emancipated mind possesses three transcendental qualities:
transcendental illumination, transcendental mastery of the light,
transcendental liberation." [MN 1.239] "When suffering and feelings
arise upon him, it does not penetrate into his mind since his mind is
Soul become." [MN 1.249] "When my steadfast mind was perfectly
purified, perfectly illumined, stainless, utterly perfect, pliable,
sturdy, fixed, and everlastingly determinate then I directed my mind
towards the gnosis of the destruction of defilements. I knew thusly as
it truly was such that: This is suffering, this is the source of
suffering, this is the subjugation of suffering and this is the path
of illumination leading away from all suffering." [MN 1.249] "When my
discourse is completed, Aggivessana, I make absorbed my mind upon the
sign of my very Soul wherein I remain fixed, am subdued, and make it
as unto this singleness. This is the bliss I perpetually reside
within." [MN 1.279] "When his steadfast mind was perfectly purified,
perfectly illumined, stainless, utterly perfect, pliable, sturdy,
fixed, and everlastingly determinate then he directes his mind towards
the gnosis of the destruction of defilements. Knowing thus and seeing
thus his mind is emancipated from sensual desires, his mind is
emancipated from becoming, his mind is emancipated from
ignorance." [MN 1.296] "Friend, how many contingencies are there for
the perfection of making unmanifest the emancipation of mind? Two
contingencies: turning away from determinately manifest phenomena and
turning towards the unmanifest realm." [MN 1.297] "What friend is
emancipation of the mind by means of devoidness (shunyata)? Herein a
follower has gone to a clearing in the forest and the root of a tree
and investigates thusly: 'This is devoid (sunna) of the Soul and what
the Soul subsists upon." This is called emancipation of the mind by
means of devoidness." [MN 1.298] "Emancipation of the mind is the
highest absolute." [MN 1.298] "Of all types of unmanifest
emancipations of mind, the fixed unshakable emancipation of the mind
is the highest supernal." [MN 1.301] "When the mind is made to become,
one gains Suchness of Soul." [Pat.isambhida'magga-Att. 1.236] "To
bring to unification the mind is to be fixed upon the
Soul." [Suttanipata Att. 2.410] "Mind inter-sighted is the
Soul." [Theragatha Att. 2.151] "The mind is the Soul." [Itivuttaka
Att. 1.168] "The Supreme Soul is the mind yoked to steadfastness; the
steadfast mind is dedicated to the Soul." [Itivuttaka Att. 1.168]
"The Supreme Soul is the Soul." [Sagathavagga Att. 1.237] "The Soul
is the mind." [Sagathavagga Att. 1.112] "The mind is the Soul." [SN
3.152] "On account of the mind being defiled, sattas are defiled; on
account of mind being pure, so too are sattas purified." [AN 1.147]
"How is one Lord of the Soul? He has made mind (citta) sovereign and
quelled, so is he Lord of the Soul, for he dwells in the purity of the
Soul. This, followers, is how one is deemed 'Lord of the Soul'." [AN
1.207] "The Aryan disciple keeps the Brahma-sabbath. He dwells in
Brahma. Owing to Brahma is he mind (citta) is calmed, that
blissfulness arises and his mind is wiped clean of defilements." [AN
2.6] "Him who is Lord of the mind (citta) possessed with supernormal
faculties and quelled, that One is called 'fixed-in-the-Soul.'" [AN
4.402] "When, followers, when ones mind is thoroughly ripe with
wisdom, he can say that birth is destroyed, the Brahma-faring has been
fulfilled, what must be done has been done, for there is naught but
this very Soul." [Udana #47] "The entirety of everything is
encompassed by the mind, there is nothing which exists higher or more
beloved than ones Soul. Since there is not other dearer than ones
Soul, him who holds love of the Soul is without harm." [Itivuttaka
#115] "One is supremely liberated of mind (citta) who has Samma'
gnosis. Emancipated he is That, verily That (Brahma)." [SN 5.410] "I
proclaim there is absolutely no difference between a layperson with a
mind (citta) which is liberated and that mind of a bhikkhu which has
been liberated for a century. [Saggathavagga-Att. 1.272] "Develop
(mind upon) signlessness means: the sign of permanence is made known
of the Soul, is the meaning of Vipassana signlessness." [SN 1.188]
"I'm burning alive with sensual lusts! My mind (citta) is engulfed by
this inferno; pray tell me how I might unbind it, of out pity for me
Gotama." It is through an inversion of perception that your mind
(citta) is engulfed. Inflexure (your mind [invert, revert upon
itself]) away from the signs of the pleasing which are connected with
taints. Envision experiences (phenomena) as otherness, as suffering,
as not the Soul. Unbind (quench) the mighty fire of lusts such that
you are not consumed again and again (transmigration). Develop the
mind (citta) upon (gnosis) of the foul (the body), for this is
sovereignty wherein one is supremely quelled; recollect (hinder to,
recollection of beforeness) that which is before the body, being
disgusted with it (body). Develop this signlessness...and you shall be
on who fares within equanimity." [MN 3.280] "Rahula's mind (citta), by
not clinging (after phenomena) was liberated from all taints. On the
spot arose the eye of Dhamma that: "the all (phenomena) which is of
the nature to arise, is also of the nature to fall prey to
[Tikanipa'ta-Att. 3.4] "Steadfast-in-the-Soul (thitattoti) means
steadfast in ones True-nature (thitasabha'vo)." [KN 4.82] "Whether he
walks, stands, sits, or lays on his side; so long as his mind (citta)
is sovereign upon his very Soul, he is thoroughly
quelled." [Theragatha-Att. 1.51] "Parinirvana is to be steadfast-in-
the-Soul (thitattoti)." [Silakkhandhavagga-Att. 1.168] "Steadfast-in-
the-Soul (thitattoti) means one is supremely-fixed within the mind
(suppatitthitacitto)" [SN 1.26] "Those followers absorbed, their minds
(citta) flawless having assimilated the Soul; a charioteer (Soul) in
control of the reigns, sages like them guard this supranormal-
power!" [Jataka-2-1341] "The Soul is Charioteer." [AN 2.6] "Him who is
Lord of the mind (citta) possessed with supernormal faculties and
quelled, that One is called 'fixed-in-the-Soul' (thitattoti)." [AN
1.196] "With mind (citta) emancipated from ignorance...this designates
the Soul has become Brahma." [AN 1.124] "What, followers, is a being
who has a diamond-mind (vajiru'pamacitto)? That one who has destroyed
the taints (asavas) and has both a liberated mind (citta) and is
liberated by wisdom. Just as there is nothing which a diamond cannot
cut, be it stone or gem; so to is one with a diamond-mind who has
destroyed the taints and has both a liberated mind (citta) and is
liberated by wisdom. This is one who possesses a diamond-mind." [AN
1.124] "What, followers, is a being who has a mind of Light
(vijjupamacitto)? He comprehends things as they are or have become;
that being suffering and the path leading to the subjugation of
suffering. Just as a flash of light in pitch of night illuminates
things; so to is him who possesses holy vision into the nature of
things are they are or have become such that he comprehends suffering
and the path leading to the subjugation of suffering. This is one who
possesses a mind of Light (vijjupamacitto)." [AN 1.6] "I do not have,
followers, insight into anything or any dharma which, when made to
become and made to expand that brings greater bliss than the mind
(citta). The mind, followers, when made to become and made to expand,
brings the greatest bliss." [AN1.10] "The mind (citta) is primordially
luminous, but due to defilements which come from without, it is
defiled. The mind (citta) is primordially luminous once again, when
defilements which come from without are cleansed from it." [MN 1.197]
"Followers, this Brahma-faring is lived for the sole preeminent
purpose of emancipation of the mind (citta) alone, which is the
quintessential final core." [MN 1.213] "The collected and quelled mind
is the Supreme Soul." [MN 1.301] "What is samadhi (the culmination of
the entire Aryan path) for? Samadhi, friend, is for making the mind
(citta) sovereign." [SN 5.73] "What is the one benefit, Master Gotama,
which you exist for? The one thing that the Tathagata exists for is
the fruit and emancipation by gnosis, illumination (vijja)." [MN
2.265] "This is immortality, that being the liberated mind (citta)
which does not cling (after anything)." [MN2-Att. 4.68] "This said:
'the liberated mind (citta) which does not cling' means
Nibbana." [Silakkhandhavagga-Att. 1.168] "Steadfast-in-the-Soul
(thitattoti) means one is supremely-fixed within the mind." [SN 1.233]
"Your mind is supremely emancipated, like the full moon on the
fifteenth day in dark of night!" [SN 3.83] "Attained the steadfast
Soul, their mind (citta) is calm; they're cleansed of the entire
world, taintless they have become Brahma." [DN2-Att. 2.479] "'The
purification of one's own mind', this means the light (joti) within
one's mind (citta) is the very Soul (attano)." [DN 2.49] "The
purification of one's own mind (citta); this is the Doctrine of the
Buddha." [MN 2.144] "How is it that one is called a 'Buddha'?...gnosis
that the mind (citta) is purified (visuddham)...such is how one is
deemed a 'Buddha'." [SN 5.154, DN 2.100, SN 3.42, DN 3.58, SN 5.163]
"The Tathagata is without the mark of all things, he dwells upwards
within the signless inflexured (mind upon itself) mind (citta). There
within, Ananda, dwell with the Soul as your Light, with the Soul as
your refuge, with none other as refuge."


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