- From: borje@xxxxxxxxxxxx
- Date: Fri, 24 Aug 2007 15:23:34 -0700
HUMAN FOOTPRINTS-In the chapter on Fossils, we discussed fossil animal
tracks; but human footprints have also been found.
Human footprints have been found in supposedly ancient rock strata.
Evolution says that man did not evolve until the late Tertiary, and
therefore cannot be more than one to three million years old. But
human footprints have been found in rocks from as early as the
Carboniferous Period, which is "250 million years old."
"On sites reaching from Virginia and Pennsylvania, through Kentucky,
Illinois, Missouri and westward toward the Rocky Mountains, prints,
from 5 to 10 inches long, have been found on the surface of exposed
rocks, and more and more keep turning up as the years go by."-*Albert
C. lngalls, "The Carboniferous Mystery," in Scientific America,
January 1940, p. 14.
The evidence clearly shows that these footprints were made when the
rocks were soft mud. Either modern man lived in the very earliest
evolutionary eras of prehistory, or all rock dating must be shrunk
down to a much shorter time frame-during all of which man lived.
"If man, or even his ape ancestor, or even that ape ancestor's early
mammalian ancestor, existed as far back as in the Carboniferous Period
in any shape, then the whole science of geology is so completely wrong
that all the geologists will resign their jobs and take up truck
driving. Hence for the present at least, science rejects the
attractive explanation that man made these mysterious prints in the
mud of the Carboniferous Period with his feet."-*lbid.
These are human footprints, not ape prints. Apes and men have quite
different footprints. The apes have essentially four hands with an
opposable big toe that looks like a thumb. They also have a gait that
is different and a tendency to drop on all fours and "knuckle walk."
THE LAETOLI TRACKS-Human tracks from Laetoli in East Africa are
described in the April 1979 issue of National Geographic and the
February 9, 1980, issue of Science News. The prints look just like
yours and mine. Evolutionists admit that they look exactly like human
footprints, and say they are in "3.5 million year old" rock,-but
refuse to accept them as made by humans, because to do so would
destroy all their strata dating theories. One desperate scientist
rented a trained bear and had him dance around in wet mud, in the hope
the print would look like the human prints found in solid shale. His
conclusion was that the Laetoli prints were identical to those of
*Mary Leakey, the wife of the famous anthropologist *Louis Leakey and
mother of *Richard Leakey, found these fully human footprints in rock
which dates to nearly 4 million years ago.
"Mary Leakey has found at Laetoli in Africa, footprints which are
considered to date from nearly 4 million years ago, and are identical
with the footprints of modern humans except that they are somewhat
smaller [Mary O. Leakey, "Footprints Frozen in Time," National
Geographic, 155 (4): 446-457(1979)]. They might, in fact, be identical
with the footprints of a modern female, of an age in the teens.
Moreover, *Mary Leakey and *Dr. Johanson have found teeth and jawbones
which, except that they are again a little smaller, are of virtually
identical appearance with those of modern humans. These remains, found
at Laotoli and Hadar, date from about 3.75 million years ago. Johanson
found also at Hadar the bones of a hand, 'uncannily like our own'
dated to about 3.5 million years ago."-W. Mehlert, "The
Australopithecines and (Alleged) Early Man," in Creation Research
Society Quarterly, June 1980, p. 24.
"[In 1982, Richard Leakey] was also convinced from the famous foot
prints at Laetoli that the genus Homo existed 3.75 million years B.C.
(700,000 years before Lucy)."-A.W. Mehlert, News note, Creation
Research Society Quarterly, December 1985, p. 145 [emphasis his].
"At a site called Laetoli in Kenya, 30 miles [48.27 km] south of
Olduvai Gorge, in 1976-1978, she [Mary Leakey] made what she considers
the most exciting discovery of her career: preserved footprints of
three hominid individuals who had left their tracks in soft volcanic
ash more than three million years ago. It is a remarkable record of
'fossilized' behavior, establishing that very ancient man-like
creatures walked exactly as we do."-*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of
Evolution (1990), p. 270.
The evolutionists are astounded at the find, but cannot believe the
evidence before them: that humans were alive when such "ancient
strata" was formed and saber-toothed tigers lived. On the same level
with the footprints, were prints of extinct creatures, such as the
saber-toothed cat. Here are additional comments in the National
" 'They looked so human, so modern, to be found in tuffs so old,' says
footprint expert Dr. Louise Robbins of the University of North
Carolina, Greensboro. The best-preserved print shows the raised arch,
rounded heel, pronounced ball, and forward-pointing big toe necessary
for walking erect. Pressures exerted along the foot attest to a
striding gait. Scuff marks appear in the toe area, and a fossilized
furrow seams the foot-print. [page 452] The footsteps come from the
south, progress northward in a fairly straight line. [page 453] The
crispness of definition and sharp outlines convince me that they were
left on a damp surface that retained the form of the foot." [page 453]
The form of his foot was exactly the same as ours. [page 453] [On the
same level with the footprints and close to them] Trackers identified
gazelles and other creatures almost indistinguishable from present-day
inhabitants, but the saber-toothed cat and the clawed chalicothere,
both now extinct, roamed with them. [page 454] Dr. Louise Robbins of
the University of North Carolina, Geensboro, an anthropologist who
specializes in the analysis of footprints, visited Laetoli and
concluded: 'Weight bearing pressure patterns in the prints resemble
human ones' [page 456]."-*Mary D. Leakey, "Footprints in the Ashes of
Time," National Geographic, April 1979, pp. 452-456.
THE GEDIZ TRACK-The scientific journal, Nature (254(5501):553 )
published a photograph of a footprint which was found in volcanic ash
near Demirkopru, Turkey, in 1970. The print is now in the Stockholm
Museum of National History. The print was of a man running toward the
Gediz River, and scientists estimate its stratigraphic location as
being 250,000 years ago. This print is not as clear as the Glen Rose
THE GLEN ROSE TRACKS-In a Cretaceous limestone formation (dated at
70-135 million years ago) near Glen Rose, Texas, are to be found some
remarkable human footprints of giant men. You can go look at them for
yourself. (But when you arrive, ask one of the old timers to tell you
where to search. As soon as they are exposed, they gradually begin
Glen Rose is located in north central Texas, about 40 miles [64.36 km]
southwest of the Fort Worth-Dallas metropolitan area. The area has
little rainfall, and for several months each year the Paluxy River is
completely dry. From time to time the river changes its course. This
occurs at those times when the quiet river becomes a raging torrent.
Because the river has such a steep slope (a drop of 17 feet [51.8 dm]
per mile [1.609 km]), it is the second-swiftest river in Texas and
quite dangerous in time of heavy rainfall.
It was after the terrible flood of 1908, when the river rose 27 feet
[82.3 dm] that the prints first began to be noticed. The new riverbed
brought to view a flat rock bottom with animal and human prints in
what was once wet mud, which had turned to stone.
Clifford L. Burdick, a mining geologist, and *Roland T. Bird, a
paleontologist with the American Museum of Natural History, carefully
examined and reported on the footprints.
The present writer is over six feet [18.2 dm] tall and has a foot that
is about 10½ inches [26.67 cm] in length (he wears a size 12 shoe).
The Glen Rose tracks are 15 inches [38.1 cm] long, and were probably
made by people 8.3 feet [25.38 dm] tall.
"Yes, they apparently are real enough. Real as the rock could be . .
the strangest things of their kind I had ever seen. On the surface of
each was splayed the near-likeness of a human foot, perfect in every
detail. But each imprint was 15 inches long."-*Roland T. Bird,
"Thunder in His Footsteps," in Natural History, May 1939, p. 255.
(As mentioned later in this study, some of the human tracks found at
Glen Rose are 21½ inches [54.6 cm] long-and thus would have been made
by humans about 11.8 feet [25.38 dm] tall.)
During his research at the Paluxy River Bed near Glen Rose, Dr. Bird
found not only human footprints, but also, by them, trails of large
three-toed carnivorous dinosaurs, and the tracks of a gigantic
sauropod. Each print was 24 x 38 inches [60.9 x 96.5 cm] in size, 12
feet [36.57 dm] apart, and sunk deeply into the mud! Both man and
dinosaur were apparently running.
In 1938, under Bird's supervision, a trail of Brontosaurus tracks were
taken from the bed and shipped to the American Museum of Natural
History in New York City. C.L. Burdick's findings were published in
the Spring 1957 issue of The Naturalist.
The so-called "Cretaceous Period" is the only time when the dinosaurs
were supposed to have lived. It is said to have spanned 65 million
years, dating from 135 million to 70 million years ago. Man is said to
have appeared no earlier than 3 million years ago. The "Glen Rose
formation," as it is known by geologists, is dated as "Early
Cretaceous," or 120 million years ago.
This formation is described as limestone, alternating with clay, marl,
and sand, and in various shades of brownish yellow and gray. Its
thickness is 40 to 200 feet [121.9-602.6 dm]. Preservation of such
tracks in limestone provides conclusive proof of rapid formation. As
soon as the tracks were made, a layer of clay, sand, and gravel washed
in and filled them so they would not dissolve away. Also, if the
tracks were not quickly covered they would erode away. There is no
room here for hundreds or millions of years. As soon as the tracks are
exposed today, they quickly erode away.
The prints were made and covered and preserved fast! It may well be
that the prints were being covered by rising, turbulent water, which,
after covering them with sediments, washed out temporarily as the
earth may have moved up or down. It was a time of geologic catastrophe
on a massive scale.
Tracks are found in several of the layers of limestone, as they are
exposed by river erosion. Man tracks have been found in layers BELOW
that of the dinosaur prints! Fossils from land, seashore, and open sea
have all been found here. Human footprints are found above, with, and
below prints of bears, saber-toothed tigers, mammoths, and dinosaurs.
Another striking evidence of the genuiness of these tracks is called
"mud push-up." These footprints show "mud push-up" where the toes
pushed up the mud in front and on the sides. This would not occur if
these were "erosion markings," as some evolutionists claim. Lamination
markings, indicating that the foot pressed through different colored
clays beneath it, are also to be seen on many of the human and animal
Over a hundred human footprint trails have been studied in the Paluxy
River area. Most of the footprints are unshod, but some appear to have
some kind of covering on the foot. Some marks are of children's feet,
but always going somewhere with adults. Some are of giants. Each one
will have length of strides to match the footprint size. Quite a few
of the tracks are 16 inches [40.64 cm] in size, but several of the
trails are of a man with a seven-foot [21.3 dm] stride and a footprint
of 21½ inches [54.6 cm] in length.
We estimate the 16-inch [40.64 cm] tracks to have been made by 8.8-
foot [27.06 dm] tall people, and the 21½ inch [54.6 cm] tracks were
made by a person 11.94-foot [36.39 dm] in height.
"An anthropological rule of thumb holds that the length of the foot
represents about 15 percent of an individual's height."-*Mary D.
Leakey, "Footprints in the Ashes of Time," National Geographic, April
1979, p. 453.
C.N. Dougherty, a local chiropractor in the Glen Rose area, in 1967
wrote a book, Valley of the Giants. He has located, described, and
photographed many of the human prints.
THE PALUXY BRANCH-That might be the end of the matter, but in August
1978, accompanied by two friends, Fred Beierle decided to spend the
afternoon searching for tracks. Then he found something unusual in the
Paluxy riverbed: a charred branch partly embedded in Cretaceous rock.
"I was looking for more tracks around what is commonly called the
number two crossing, a section of the river, adjacent to the Robert
Mack farm, where there are many dinosaur tracks. In the same formation
as the dinosaur tracks, about 200 meters [218.6 yd] downstream from
them, we found a charred branch from a tree embedded in the Cretaceous
rock. The branch was about 2 inches [5.08 cm] in diameter and 7 feet
[21.34 dm] long. It had apparently fallen into the soft mud-like
material which later became limestone; and, while the branch was
burning, it had quickly been buried, but had continued to smolder for
some time, thus being converted into charcoal, and had remained when
the mud hardened into limestone."-Fredrick P. Beierle, "A New Kind of
Evidence from the Paluxy," in Creation Research Society Quarterly,
September 1979, p. 87.
The three men decided that the branch had fallen off a tree which had
been hit by lightning. For centuries that branch had been completely
encased in Cretaceous rock, said to be the part of the Mesozoic Era
(135-170 million years ago) when dinosaurs were walking on the earth.
The fact that the wood was charcoal and not ash indicates that it was
burning when it fell, and then covered while still burning.
The wood clearly showed the cracks often seen in half-burned wood. It
lay east-west, at nearly a right angle to the river. The branch was
2.26 m [7.47 ft] in length. Its eastern tip was concealed, and only
the upper part was exposed; the rest was embedded in the rock. The
thicker eastern section was about 5 cm (1.968 in] wide while most of
the rest was about 2.5 cm (.98 in] in diameter.
Beierle sent a sample of the wood to *Reisner Berg of UCLA to have it
radiodated. The carbon-14 test result which came back gave a date for
the burned wood of approximately 12,800 years.
Corrected, this would agree with Flood chronology. (See chapter 6,
Inaccurate Dating Methods, for radiocarbon dating problems.)
Therefore, the dinosaur tracks, found in the area in the same
Cretaceous rock must be no older than 12,000 years.
"The test showed that the wood is about 12,000 years old. Now, the mud
must have hardened into rock after the branch fell into it. But the
tracks in the rock must have been made in the mud only a very short
time before it hardened, or else they would never have remained. So
the tracks in the rock must be no more than about 12,000 years old.
"Nobody, as far as I know, has disputed that the dinosaur tracks found
at the river are genuine. Thus, there must have been dinosaurs living
about 12,000 years ago. This conclusion, it will be noted, follows
whether or not the human tracks, of which many have been found, are
genuine. On the other hand, when the dinosaur tracks have been shown
to be comparatively recent, there is no reason to doubt that human
tracks might be found in the same place."-*Op. cit., pp. 88, 131.
THE ANTELOPE SPRINGS TRACKS-Trilobites are small marine creatures that
are now extinct. Evolutionists tell us that trilobites are one of the
most ancient creatures which have ever lived on Planet Earth, and they
existed millions of years before there were human beings.
William J. Meister, Sr., a drafting supervisor by trade (and, by the
way, a non-Christian), made a hobby of searching for trilobite fossils
in the mountains of Utah. On June 1, 1968, he found a human footprint,
and there were trilobites in the same rock! The location was Antelope
Springs, about 43 miles [69.19 km] northwest of Delta, Utah.
Breaking off a large two-inch thick piece of rock, he hit it on its
edge with a hammer; and it fell open in his hands. To his great
astonishment; he found, on one side of the footprint of a human being,
trilobites right in the footprint itself! The other half of the rock
slab showed an almost perfect mold of a footprint and fossils.
Amazingly, the human was wearing a sandal!
The footprint measured 10¼ inches long by 3½ inches wide at the sole
[26.035 x 8.89 cm], and 3 inches wide [7.62 cm] at the heel. The heel
print was indented in the rock about an eighth of an inch [1.676 cm]
more than the sole. It was clearly the right foot, because the sandal
was well-worn on the right side of the heel. Several easily visible
trilobites were on the footprint. It had stepped on them, pressing
No chance of hand-made "carvings" here, as the evolutionists charge at
Glen Rose. The footprint was located halfway up a 2,000-foot mountain
face, and Meister had to stop to rest many times as he climbed. Where
he found the print, he had to make footholds to stand on, in order to
search for trilobites.
Meister mentions that he told Burdick and Carlisle about the site.
This is what happened next:
"The first week in August, Dr. Clifford Burdick, well-traveled
consulting geologist of Tucson, Arizona, visited the site of the
discovery at Antelope Springs with Mr. Carlisle [a graduate geologist
at the University of Colorado]. On this visit Dr. Burdick found a
footprint of a barefoot child in the same location as my discovery. He
showed me this footprint August 18.
"The day before, my family and I had met Dr. Burdick at Antelope
Springs. While there we found another sandal print. Dr. Burdick
continued, and on Monday, August 19, he informed me by letter that he
had found a second child's footprint.
"In addition to my discovery and that of Dr. Burdick, a friend of
mine, George Silver, digging alone in this location, discovered more
footprints of a human or human beings, also shod in sandals. His
specimen, which he showed to me (I also showed this specimen to Dr.
Melvin Clark), had two footprints, one about a half inch [2.54 cm]
above and on top of the other.
"Finally Dean Bitter, teacher in the public schools of Salt Lake City,
discovered other footprints of human beings wearing sandals much like
those found by George Silver and me. Both Dr. Cook and I have seen his
specimens found at Antelope Springs, some distance from the site of my
discovery."-William J. Meister, Sr., "Discovery of Trilobite Fossils
in Shod Footprint of Human in 'Trilobite Beds' - A Cambrian Formation
- Antelope Springs, Utah," in Why Not Creation? (1970), p. 190.
As a result of finding the footprints, Meister became a Christian.
*Leland Davis, a consulting geologist, analyzed the strata and the
footprints it had been found in-and found them to be "consisting
almost entirely of Cambrian strata"! This is the oldest regular fossil-
bearing stratum on the planet!
You can find a complete description of the Antelope Springs footprint
discoveries in the book, Why Not Creation? pp. 185-193.