Project Proposal, Child Literature & Forex
- From: Mukunda Lohani <lohanimukunda@xxxxxxxxx>
- Date: Sat, 14 Jul 2012 07:08:49 -0700 (PDT)
Project Proposal : Sample Format
How to write a Project Proposal
A Project Proposal on Human Rights & World Peace
The institute named " Human Rights & World Peace" has been established
with the intention of mobilizing project proposal for eliminating
anarchism and guaranteeing human rights in the universal level
according to the Institution Registration Act 2034. Specially, it has
been activating as a non-profitable social organization. The central
office of this institute is located at Putalisadak, KT M, Nepal. Its
branch office is also situated at Pulchowk, Lalitpur. It has aimed to
open branch offices all over the world later.
Context and Rationale : -
The concept of this institute has been adopted in context of
preserving human rights and eliminating terrorist activities in the
universal level. especially, the rationale of establishing this
institute is to arouse public awareness for the actual implementation
of human rights and maintain tranquility.
Planning Process : -
This institute will go forward on the basis of the following planning
To assemble grant and cooperation in national and international level
for the great mission of universal tranquility.
To mobilize people's participation all over the world so as to
guarantee human rights in true sense.
Goal : -
The main goal of this institute is as follows:-
To minimize terrorism universally.
To run an important campaign throughout the world for the actual
implementation of human right and peace.
Objectives : -
The major objectives of this institute are the following:-
To manipulate various informative seminars for the guarantee of human
To conduct prominent programs based on public awareness in every
sector as a perpetual and responsible self- governing agency for the
To formulate innovative and scientific procedures for systematizing
the peace and human rights in the universal level.
To remain selflessly active in the direction to guarantee universal
declaration of peace and human rights in true sense.
Strategy : -
The major strategies of this institute are as follows:-
To establish reliable contact with social organizations of native and
foreign lands with common target for guaranteeing actual universal
To encourage persons and organizations in order to abolish universal
To initiate different groups for world peace and progress.
Major Activities : -
On the basis of above-mentioned strategies, this institute will do the
following major activities:-
To give special priority for the development and conservation of
those factors as universal peace and human rights are complementary
with each other.
To cause to support in the development of world peace, relationship
and brotherhood by issuing commitment against the discriminatory
behavior and deprivation of human rights to be happened in any part of
To run the effective programs based on the innovative thinking for the
sustainable development of universal human rights and tranquility.
To organize trainings, workshops and orientated classes for this great
Co-ordination : -
This institute will formulate and apply effective schemes all over the
world for this deep work by coordinating and cooperating with N Gos,
activated in national and international sector. Furthermore, it will
also go forward on the basis of the coordination of various native and
foreign social organizations, working in the field of social service.
Thus, it has aimed to raise coordination with diverse groups in
universal level for making this project successful.
Program Area and Duration : -
The program area and duration of this institute are as following:-
To maintain the program area throughout the world.
To institutionalize peace and human rights in universal level as its
To determine the duration of five years for this great project.
Anticipated Results : -
This institute will anticipate the following results from the actual
implementation of this project:-
Minimization of terrorism in the world.
Guaranteeing human rights universally.
Maintaining peace and order over-ally.
Raising the feeling of universal unity and brotherhood.
For achieving above-mentioned expected results, this institute will go
forward in the direction of its terms and references by considering
various probable risks and potential dangers like heavy rain, storm,
flood and landslide as natural calamities.
Along with this, it will anticipate high level of co-operation and
favor from every sector for the successful implementation of this
Program Management : -
Indeed, skilled human power is needed for the successful
implementation of any project. For this purpose, this institute needs
competent personalities. So, the structure of program management will
be as follows:-
Chief Executive Director
Assistant Administrative Officer
Assistant Field Officer
Reporting : -
This institute will submit the report for the working progress of
project. For this purpose, it will do the following tasks:-
To supervise its branch offices, activated all over the world
To observe their regular activities.
To evaluate the challenges, created in course of working.
To revise positive and negative aspects of working.
Along with this, on the basis of monthly report of the progress
details of the project, this institute will prepare annual report as
final report. For preparing a good report, it will mobilize human
resources all over the world.
As far as positive and negative impacts are concerned, it will give
necessary instruction to various groups in order to make the best
report. In this way, this institute will prepare an effective report
by making deep supervision of the project.
Budget : -
Any project depends on the systematic management of budget. Without
this, no program can be gone forward. So, this institute has managed
the budget in following ways in order to prove the project
Subject & Amount Category
Conclusion and Evaluation : -
While making deep evaluation of this institutional project, it seems
completely effective and contextual. However, it is necessary to
emphasize on systematic implementation of this project. It will be
centered in those people and groups, who are deprived of human rights
and victimized by the terrorism. As this project is a mixture of the
guarantee of human rights and universal peace and order, it is
believed to be entirely successful. So, this project will be proved to
be beneficial for raising universal unity, brotherhood and
implementing the principle of human rights in forth-coming days.
Project Proposal : Theoretical Background
Plan : -
A plan is an image, map, or vision to represent the forms and/or
features of desired situation(s). "It is a means to build a
constituency for change. It is also evidence of an explicit allocation
of resources to the task- and the means to mobilize additional,
external resources" (UNDP, 2000). It is equally applicable in terms of
understanding the 'concept of plan' be it in community or national
Of course, a plan prepared to develop a certain community is
understood as Community Development Plan whereas a plan prepared to
develop a district or region is called the District Development Plan
or the Regional Development Plan. On the other hand, depending upon
different sectors (agriculture, education, forestry, health and so on)
there may be different sector-specific plans and we call each of them
' Sectoral Development Plan'. And finally, we have the National
Development Plan, which should be understood as an integration of all
levels, and sector-based development plans.
In a plan document, we can find only the level or sector-specific
broad decisions indicating what and how much is to be achieved with
the investment of given resources ( finance, human, time, technology
A plan itself is static. In other words, a plan representing only an
imagination or vision will have no meaning unless it is put into
operation to achieve its set objective/s.
Planning, on the other hand, is a process to formulate a plan and also
an action drive to put the plan into operation in order to produce the
targeted results. It involves a pre-consideration of resource
commitment ( finance, human, time, technology etc.) required for the
implementation of plan. It is dynamic.
There is a mutual dependence between a plan's vision and the
materialization of its goal. So, much of the success of a plan depends
upon the following circumstances.
How clearly and realistically the planners formulate the plan?
How far the plan implementing agencies coincide with the vision of
How far the programmes and projects approved to execute are in
line with the plan objective/s?
Things to Remember - If the above said considerations do not follow
the same direction, it will be something like some valuable musical
instruments but played without coordination.
Programme : -
A program-me is the extensive and consistent set of action units
stating the needs of interrelated activities to achieve the plan's
objectives and goal. There could be several program-mes within a plan
or a development plan.
In fact, the success of a PLAN necessarily depends upon the accuracy
and clarity shown in its program formulation followed by clear action
outlines on one hand and the establishment of inter-sectoral and inter-
organizational sound coordination and cooperation mechanisms, on the
Project : -
Projects are the specific schemes or action units designated for the
investment of given resources and skills with an aim of attaining some
predetermined objective/s. Projects involve real actions as per the
direction of program-me outlines. So, a program-me may consist of
In other words, projects are the specific action units within the
framework of a program-me and program-mes are the integrated blocks of
development plan. Therefore, proper formulation of sector-specific
plan, program-me and project necessarily indicate the pace and
direction of development process of any community, district, and
thereby of an economy. Projects remain themselves at the bottom level
of any plan.
Interrelationship between Plan, Program-me & Project
Development or Sectoral Plans
There may be several types and natures of projects functioning in any
community or country. All of such projects are tied up, in one or
another way, to their respective program-mes. Likewise, there may be
several program-mes within a plan designed to fit into the set goal of
Type and Nature of Projects : -
In broad, for a simple understanding, categorization of different
types and natures of projects can be done on the following basis.
However, it should not be taken as a comprehensive or complete
Classification of Projects
Type and Nature of Projects
non-industrial or industrial
private or public
goods producing or service providing
profit or non-profit oriented
small, medium, large (depends on definition)
Project Characteristics in Common : -
Despite the different types and natures of projects we observe in
different sectors and in different levels, all of those necessarily
reflect a set of common characteristics.
Common Characteristics of all Projects
each and every project needs to be guided to achieve an objective or a
set of objectives.
every project requires certain investment of resources (money,
material, time, information or technology, manpower,etc.)
Every project needs space be it physical, aerial, aesthetic,
political, cultural etc
all projects need to undergo a system of inputs- process - outputs.
every project will have its own phase-based cycle. In other words,
every project starts from its identification and ends up with
evaluation. Depending upon the type and scale of a project, phases of
project cycle may vary from project to project.
Project Cycle Phase : An Example
Phase I Identification
Phase II Formulation
Phase III Implementation M & E
Phase I Identification
Phase II Formulation
Phase III Appraisal
Phase IV Implementation M & E
In the above project cycle example, there are only three phases in
project ''A'' whereas there are four phases in project ''B''. In other
cases there may be many more phases as well. All this largely depends
upon the type and nature of a project. However, in general context, we
can say that every project will have invariably three phases and they
Pre-project implementation phase (including all activities starting
from project identification
to project appraisal);
Project implementation phase (including monitoring and on-going
Post-project implementation phase (conducting impact evaluation).
Project Approach in Planning : -
It has been already said above that a plan is a representation of
vision and projects are the real action units undertaken in order to
achieve the goal envisioned in the plan. Hence a plan vision may be
based either on top-down or bottom-up approach.
The practice of formulating plan, program-mes and projects at central
level and pushed down to the field level for its implementation is
known as top-down approach. Here the requirements and interest of
local people while selecting and implementing projects are not taken
into consideration, in general. Local people, in such case become just
onlookers rather than the actors in doing development works. Usually,
projects designed under top-down approach are experienced to face
failure from a number of reasons. Some of the key reasons for their
failures are as follows.
Reasons for Top-Down Project Failures : -
Ambiguous project objectives set on the basis of insufficient
information and unreliable data while planning the project and
designing its M &E system;
Conflicts in set objectives of different projects that are working to
achieve the common goal of a program-me;
Absence of field-based experienced and/or qualified personnel to
design and carry out projects;
Lack of proper communication between project planning (central) and
project implementing (local) agencies;
corruption at higher levels in the name of local level development;
No timely release of budget from the cent-re;
Project and Project Proposal : -
A proposal is the guiding document of a project. Virtually, success of
a project is largely determined by its project proposal document. In
other words, a well-designed project proposal may leave no room for
confusion and convulsions while undertaking and performing project
activities. So there is a close interlink between the future goings-on
of a project and its proposal document.
Depending upon the type, scale, and nature of projects each and every
project will have its own uniqueness from different dimensions. So it
is not possible to provide a standard format for improving the project
proposal writing skills equally applicable for all types and natures
of projects. We have to develop our individual project proposal
writing skills by ourselves.
Project Identification and their Sources : -
Once we get a clear understanding about the concept of projects, our
next step will be to identify the potential and useful projects that
could be helpful to expedite the development process. Paradoxically,
projects may be lying here and there in different sectors
(agriculture, health, education etc.) and in varying levels or ranging
from grass roots to national levels.
Usually, project identification ideas come out from various sorts of
problems those we face in our day to day life. Problems we face in our
daily life may be looked from the perspectives of improving the
existing situation of people, community, and organization at varying
levels. On the other land, project ideas also may pop up to exploit
promising opportunities which are either directly observed in
different fields or are recommended by research studies, workshops,
seminars, reports etc. Anyhow, most of the projects may be identified
in relation to
Sources to Projects : -
The above discussions give a broad idea about the origin of different
types, nature, and scale of projects. Alternatively, we may call them
as the sources of projects.
Sources to project, on the other hand, refer to those individuals or
organizations that give life to an identified project. In other words,
each and every identified project, if it is to be implemented, needs
the involvement of certain amount of investment (financial and non-
financial) to be committed by someone else. So any person or
organization taking interest to invest and manage a project may be
alternatively called as project animator or project sponsor or "
Sources to Projects".
Steps in Project Selection/Screening : -
Since the focus of this guidebook centers around to improve the skills
in writing project proposal, the identification and selection process
of a candidate project with a view to write proposal thereon is listed
below in a point-wise basis rather than in details.
Recognize the types and natures of projects you have identified
Establish operational nature of your project
Do basic homework (whatever is needed )
Find out the funding agency or sources to project
Understanding the interest of funding agency
Check whether your and sponsor's interests are matching
Prepare and forward project proposal
Project Proposal : Introductory Background
A project proposal is simply a basic document having explanation of
activities to be performed while undertaking an investment project. In
other words, it is a written document prepared and proposed to do
something in a per-planned way with a view to successfully carry out
the given assignment. Generally, a project proposal should
satisfactorily answer the following questions.
Project Proposal : Importance
A doctor examines her/his patient and prescribes medicine. Engineer
draws technical map prior to starting any construction work with a
view to execute the same in a per-planned way without any hurdle.
Similarly, a manager or a development planner also needs to identify
the appropriate projects required for her/his community or
organization development and state the Whats, Whys and Hows of any
development project that s/he is going to propose. From this
standpoint, a development actor may be considered as a social engineer
to structure the future of a community or a doctor to examine the
socioeconomic illness and provide right prescriptions of development
process to be undergone by a community through selecting and
implementing appropriate and needy projects.
Proposal Writing: Science or Art : -
Identifying and screening right project/s from different points of
Setting reasonable and achievable objective or objectives;
Deciding appropriate design/method for project works; and
using resources in an effective and efficient way.
Types of Project Proposals : -
Depending upon different fields and natures of projects, there may be
several types of project proposals. Even so, some of the proposals we
usually come across can be broadly classified as is presented in the
following ways. However, it should not be taken for an exhaustive
classification. On the other hand, the following ways indicate the
types of the proposal writing skills of which we are starting to
Business Enterprise Related
Socioeconomic Development Based
Level or Scale of Project Proposals : -
There may be varying levels and scales of project proposals. All this
largely depends on the nature and type of project you have identified
and intended to prepare proposal on. Virtually, there is not a cut off
point or demarcation line to call a particular project as small or
big. The " smallness and bigness" of a project largely depends upon a
number of parameters like the amount of investment made on it, command
area covered by it, employment generated by it, foreign currencies
earned by it and so on. Therefore, it is the concern of project
awarding authorities to fix certain parameters to call a project
either small or medium or big one. However, keeping in mind the skills
required for writing project proposals, we can plainly see the level
or scale of a project from basic, advanced and more advanced
Project Proposal Levels
Tender Proposal Funding Proposal
More Advanced More Advanced
It is clear that a tender or funding proposal could be either basic or
advanced or more advanced in its level. But as a beginner in this
field, our attempt should be to start writing project proposals from
basic level and move towards the advanced and more advanced levels. On
the other hand, skill required for preparing various levels of
proposals may differ to a great extent.
Blog Title : A Sample Format of Project Proposal
Blog Address - http://www.formatproposal.blogspot.com
Specially, literary compositions, written in plain or simple style
according to the level of delicate children is known as child
literature. Like other literature, this literature has been developing
from the prehistoric period according to the mythological tradition.
At first, parents used different materials for persuading their
children. Those materials gradually started to publish in written
form. Likewise, several compositions in initial phase had been written
as textual materials. They have taken a literary form after-wards. In
this way, this literature seems to be moving forward rapidly.
The main objectives of this literature are the following:-
To cause to develop the children physically and mentally.
To arouse the personality development and self-confidence in children.
Nature of the Children:-
Children are naturally active and eager. As they are like unripe soil,
teachers have undertaken to convert them into various forms. The great
impression, created in childhood may bring radical change in their
real life. Therefore, it can be made more effective from the medium of
Child Literature, included in primary level arouses moral instruction,
religious belief and humanitarian feelings in children as well as
deep affection to nation, nationality and national language. As a
result, children are morally and amusingly refined. so, this
literature is proved to be inevitable for the children.
The major sources of this literature are as follows:-
Satiric Poetical Creations
Like English literature, the major structural base of this literature
is based on the following items:-
Especially, child literature is based on the following subject-
Intellect and Humour
Folk Story and Poem
This literature has encouraged the children to be virtuous. For this
purpose, informative materials are available in it. In addition to
this, it also inspires the children to be free from the smoking and
alcohol. In this sense, it is more educative. so, this literature is
very useful for the children.
The major specialties of this literature are as follows:-
To raise moral education in children.
To provide the entertainment to the children.
To give contextual knowledge about various aspects.
To encourage the children to create literary works.
To develop the intellectuality in children.
Role of the Teacher:-
Indeed, teachers should present this literature effectively. As a
result of this, children are mentally capable. While teaching such
child literature, they should be able to give an example by means of
various kinds of music and sports. In order to make more effective,
different educational materials can be also used. As a result, their
teaching method may be interesting, contextual and effective. In this
sense, role of teacher in child literature is extremely important
because a child can get good knowledge from him.
Contribution of Various Native and Emigrant Literary Figures in Child
Most of native and emigrant literary personalities have published
various materials in child literature. Especially, they encourage the
children to remain free from the superstition, existent in the
society. Similarly, such literature is able to change regular duties
and conduct of the children. So, their literary works have played a
remarkable role for developing creative power in children.
Development of Creativity in Children:-
This literature is able to develop the following creativity in
Creativity to write essays or articles in various daily and weekly
Blog Title : Child Literature
Blog Address - http://www.createchild.blogspot.com
Necessary Tool for Forex and Loan
Loan refers to the taking money or current asset with the condition to
be pay after a period with some added value.
Secured Loan Definition
Secured loan is a loan in which the borrower pledges some asset ( e.g.
a car ) as collateral for the loan. The loan is thus secured against
the collateral in the event that the borrower defaults, the lender
takes possession of the asset used as collateral and may sell it to
regain the amount originally lent to the borrower. As the loan is
secured, the lender is relieved of most of the financial risks
involved; he may thus offer attractive terms for the borrower on
interest rates and repayment period.
Unsecured Loan Definition
Unsecured loans are loans that are not guaranteed with any asset, so
that the risk of repossession does not exist. Though the lender can
still take legal action in order to recover the money, such a legal
process would be significantly longer and more expensive than with
secured loans. Typical unsecured loans are credit card debt, bank
overdrafts, and personal loans.
Forex & Loan Information
An equity loan is a mortgage placed on real estate in exchange for
cash to the borrower. For example, if a person owns a home worth
$100,000, but does not currently have a lien on it, they may take an
equity loan at 80% loan to value (LTV) or $80,000 in cash in exchange
for a lien on title placed by the lender of the equity loan.Many
lending institutions require the borrower to repay only an interest
component of the loan each month (calculated daily, and compounded to
the loan once each month). The borrower can apply any surplus funds to
the outstanding loan principal at any time, reducing the amount of
interest calculated from that day onwards. Some loan products also
allow the possibility to redraw cash up to the original LTV,
potentially perpetuating the life of the loan beyond the original loan
term.The rate of interest applied to equity loans is much lower than
that applied to unsecured loans, such as credit card debt.
Some Key Terms
cash(in exchange for)
cash(possibility to redraw)
Forex Information on the Internet
Trendlines & Trendline Analysis
Trendlines in an Uptrend
Trendlines in a Downtrend
Caution Required/Fibonacci retracement or extension level
For Further Details, Major Things are Available in the Website :