The Blue Fired Dragon - NGen WA
- From: Automutt <automutt@xxxxxxxxxxx>
- Date: Mon, 23 Jan 2012 03:44:51 -0800 (PST)
The Blue Fired Dragon - NGen WA
The Blue Fired Dragon
Speaking with words of an initiative unto the older elements,
A deliverance in development; for to utilise more effectively.
That which those far more ancient than we have chosen so well.
And the highest of the many flickers, fuels this blue fired life.
Something older than the stars burns within our lighted hearts,
And this search for the first words, can lead us on to heaven.
Search for that Voice that echoes in the start of something good.
To see the split tongues spiral like the strands of life within.
cognosco veritas hodie
alliance/partnership unite assemble;
away from / beyond --
grievous suffering, torment, affliction;
shine forth, appear, dawn; shine/smile upon (w/favor),
mind; intellect; soul; feelings; heart; spirit,
courage, character, pride; air, animate,
give/bring life; revive, refresh; rouse, animate; inspire; blow;
become acquainted with/aware of;
recognize; learn, find to be;
truth, honesty; today, nowadays; at the present time;
Black Water Dragon...
Year for great deeds, innovative ideas and big projects.
Chinese New Year 2012
The year of the Dragon is the year for great deeds, innovative ideas and big projects. In this year success in particular can expect people who are dealing with finances. This will be advantageous time to begin new projects in business and social level.
PeNGen Perpetual Energy Systems - NGen WA
Ngen Perpetual Energy Systems (PeNGen)
Green Energy is now Infinite Blue;
Hydrogen Nanoextraction from Ocean for Water and Energy
And Laser powered coated turbine generation or Beam-Powered Systems
Understanding the previous and also developing technologies that will if utilised efficiently bring about the laser fired perpetual energy model proposed by NGen.
From Aluminium Turbine Technology to Lighter More Heat Resistant Materials, for Lightcraft style systems or other beam-powered. Of Particular note are the new Metamaterials being developed. That will aid in repulsion of laser beams and bring about the ability to use lasers of lower and lower power usage to bring about a less power in and more out model of a turbine array. And methods for the reflection and boosting of available lasers.
y. The evolution of ultra-lightweight high temperature materials, dual-mode laser propulsion engines, powerful lasers, and the opportunity to change science fiction into scientific fact are the driving forces behind this joint AFRL/ MSFC research effort.
Laser Repellant Coated Turbines or Light Weight Metals induce the generation systems for the perpetual flow of power.NGen shall be using lasers fired at laser repellant coated turbines or an array of such, either vertical or horizontal for the perpetual generation of electricity as the less in more out approach is showing to be more efficient than the proposed 1st generation D-Light-Falls single NGen laser system.
The proposed horizontal or vertical Laser Arrays can be efficiently repulsed by a system of lasers similar to stadium camera systems or other reflecting arrays similar to having disco balls or other reflectors splitting the laser for additional use of the less in more out approach to perpetual laser powered energy production.
NGen WA Laser propelled electricity generation background and review articles.
Various methods currently exist and are being developed to bring about the fact of Laser Repulsion.
Some are listed below after Hydrogen Synergy Future;
Hydrogen Synergy Future – Hydrogen Nano extraction from sea water, water or air, atmosphere or space.
The proposed Ngen WA Hydrogen synergy future has been redefined with a newer approach of extracting the hydrogen from Air or Water or Space and being used with or without the need to store. Ngen is proposing the development of Cars, Trains or any needed vehicle, and Space craft also for the ability to go further, faster and more efficient, as a greener alternative. The need to carry only small amounts of stored Hydrogen fuel, because of the Perpetual Nano extraction from the atmosphere, water or space, enabling craft to have unlimited destinations and further distance travelling ability. The Nano extraction systems catering to a from Air, atmosphere or space approach and a Just in Time feeding of engines for nonstop travelling. NGen proposes Air and Space Craft adaptations of these systems for more efficient and further, faster, travel. Cars and other automobiles also can have conversion with these systems for a freeing of the constraints of current travel.
Hydrogen Homes – Hydrogen Nano extraction Home Generators
--- Similar to the current gas powered home power generation units, NGen proposes the use of the Nano extraction techniques and systems to bring about the generation of home power needs from an, independent of pipeline or other connection, ability to fuel the needs of homes or businesses, cheaper, greener and more efficiently.
Hydrogen Synergy Future NOW
Green Energy is Blue; Hydrogen Nanoextraction from Ocean for Water and Energy
Fresh Water And Energy Service
Fresh Water Production By-Product of Hydrogen Nanoextraction Techniques
The ability to produce clean fresh water as a leading by-product of the nanoextraction of hydrogen from sea water via reverse engineering and associated practices is a goal of many involved in this exciting field of science. The confluence of providing energy and water for our growing cities and towns available to us at the initial engineering of our nanoextraction facilities, ground up infrastructure investments at energy / water establishments shall provide profound synergies for the full production of hydrogen for energy and clean fresh water for all. So far an Australian, American and Japanese research project is underway to prove the viability of such techniques and synergies available to us. The production of Oxygen and LOX or liquid oxygen is also of interest to us available as a synergy. Further discussion and research must take place to bring about the hydrogen synergy plans of our future.
DRB @ NGen
MIT's Belcher uses engineered virus to split water
By Christine Peterson, on April 16th, 2010
Angela Belcher and team at MIT have tweaked a bacterial virus to serve as a scaffolding to:
attract and bind with molecules of a catalyst (the team used iridium oxide) and a biological pigment (zinc porphyrins). The viruses became wire-like devices that could very efficiently split the oxygen from water molecules.
Belcher says that
within two years she expects to have a prototype device that can carry out the whole process of splitting water into oxygen and hydrogen, using a self-sustaining and durable system.
This is just a very early taste of what we can expect someday from more extensively designed molecular machine systems.
Coal Conversion Via ETS or CPR
Coal Conversion Via ETS or CPR Models – The First Step Forward
ETS legislation to the people for a referendum...
December 2, 2009
ETS legislation to the people for a referendum...
NGEN's proposed conversion of coal and gas fired power stations to hydrogen and the supply of hydrogen for cars will revolutionise the worlds energy sector.
The resulting decrease in CO2 emissions could be an offset for any proposed ETS leglisation.
The Coppenhagen Treaty or any other model to reduce green house gases should take into account the conversion of current green house gas emitting infrastructure...
Instituting the change and reduction models allowing for conversion techniques in regards to ETS legislation is a minefield politically.
Why can we not fix the problems of our dependence on fossil fuels with the model of conversion reported below in an NGen Press Release, any tax on pollution/carbon should be used for such models and any credits given for such behaviour.
Any comments regarding ETS legislation or new technologies and the problems envisaged in their implementation is encouraged
Nano catalysts, and the death of Coal
With the advent of Nano-catalysts and Viral Scaffolds the extraction of hydrogen has became much cheaper and more efficient. According to Gridshift, cheaper than gasoline. Surely a new appreciation for this resource will come about and new technologies utilising hydrogen should now be evaluated.
Fuel for Cars, Energy for Homes,
With the advent of nano-extraction techniques, the extraction of
hydrogen from sea water for the use of power generation and fueling
of cars is a step closer. NGEN's proposed conversion of coal and gas
fired power stations to hydrogen and the supply of hydrogen for cars
will revolutionise the worlds energy sector.
Due to developments in the nanoextraction of hydrogen from sea water, the hydrogenerator has been revised with this cheaper and more efficient system.
Regarding the dangers in storing vast ammounts of hydrogen we at NGen have instituted a "Just In Time" Processing Model allowing with pipeline and in-situ sea water extraction, the process of safe, secure- ease power generation on massive scales, and the supply of hydrogen for the use of cars and other combustion engines.
NGEN looks forward to providing cost effective energy for the worlds markets, but must overcome much derision and stagnate policies, before full production can occur, lets hope we acheive our goals and find the markets available to us.
NGEN -- WA
"Hydrogen is a critical piece of America's future renewable energy
policy," said Robert Dopp, CEO of GridShift, Inc. "Our new water
electrolysis process generates carbon neutral hydrogen that is
cheaper than gasoline at a fraction of the cost and size of currently
available water electrolysis hydrogen generators. We are now on the
path to a truly viable hydrogen fueled future."
The key to GridShift's process is a new method for coating a complex
three-dimensionally shaped electrode on all surfaces with a unique
combination of nano catalysts that expose the catalysts to the
electrolyte for efficient water electrolysis reactions and is robust
enough to withstand the rigors of electrolysis. The result is an
electrolyzer running as a full cell at 1000 milliamp per cm2 at 80%
energy efficiency. GridShift is on track to reach their goal of 85%
energy efficiency, which is 47 kWh/kgH2 or $2.35 per kg of H2.
Technical details of the development, procedure and the discovery are
available in a whitepaper published at
Coal Conversion Techniques – Coal to Gas to Hydrogen
As the breakdown of the climate talks in Copenhagen attest to, we must otherwise institute measures for the reduction of carbon pollution. The conversion of current coal fired infrastructure to gas and then further to hydrogen is of import to the reduction models otherwise explored. Conversion techniques and engineering practices will be used to implement change in the energy sector for the benefit of global achievement in the environmental action plans set before us all.
Further conversion to hydrogen, with the advent of nanoextraction of hydrogen from sea water, will be implemented to achieve further reductions in carbon pollution. The required conversion techniques and engineering will be invaluable for the rollout of conversion to go ahead. Current infrastructure must be converted or superseded to achieve any reductions, particularly as energy needs increase. The ability to provide expertise in conversion techniques or the engineering inherent in conversion is needed to allow the efficient changeover from coal to gas and so on. Firms specialising in these capabilities will reap many benefits from the greening economy, now and into the future.
Coal Conversion. – The First Step Forward
Instead of a universal carbon price, BlueScope is suggesting the Federal Government should only tax coal-fired electricity generation.
"For electricity generation, we do need to have natural gas fired generation instead of coal fired generation, so a price on carbon that is charged on the electricity bill and then a rebate given to low income households and companies that face import competition is a very simple, cost effective way of getting the right price signal," he argued.
NGEN WA automutt@xxxxxxxxxxx
Laser Repulsion Articles
Material Could Repel Laser Attacks
Eric Bland, Discovery News
Feb. 26, 2008 -- Researchers at the U.S. Navy's China Lake Naval Warfare Center are developing a new material that would shield ships against high-energy weapons like lasers.
The work could help protect equipment and personnel while advancing research in the unique world of metamaterials.
"If you have a ship being hit by a laser, and it was made of this metamaterial, you could reflect the laser beam," said Simin Feng, one of the study co-authors and a researcher at China Lake.Unlike normal materials, which derive their properties largely from the chemicals that comprise them, metamaterials are artificially made materials that get their properties from their physical structures.
The material Feng and her co-author Klaus Halterman, also of China Lake, have theorized would be made of three layers of conventional materials, with the metamaterials sandwiched between the three layers. Since the material would be thin it should be easily applied and "wouldn't weigh things down," said Halterman.
There are several kinds of metamaterials. Some, like the "invisibility cloak" developed by Duke University Researchers in 2006, channel certain wavelengths of light around a hidden object. Others, like the Navy's, have what is called a negative refractive index.
Stick a straw into a glass of water. The parts above and below the water point in slightly different directions. That's a positive refractive index, and is the case for nearly all materials.
A negative refractive index would occur if you tried to stick the straw into the water and it bounced back at the exact but opposite angle it entered the water.
Now imagine the straw is instead a powerful laser. A ship made of conventional materials struck by such a laser would be sliced in half.
Not only would this ship reflect the beam, the more powerful the beam, the stronger the reflection would be, notes Halterman.
Like all optical metamaterials, their unique properties work only if the size of the structure is smaller than the wavelength of light being used. Since the Navy metamaterial would use very small structures it should repel nearly all lasers.
Recently Feng and Halterman were awarded a grant from the Office of Naval Research to turn their theory into reality. They received the grant after publishing their research in the Feb. 15, 2008 edition of the Physical Review Letters.
Even with the money it will likely be a while before the laser-reflecting material is functional. But if someone were to build it, "it would be very interesting," said Anthony Starr, president of SensorMetrix, a company that does metamaterial research. "A lot of possibilities would be raised. The trick would be making it."
Newsletter, Fall 2000
Imagine This...Launching your own micro-satellite into space for the price of a new car.
Transporting yourself to the opposite side of the planet in only 45 minutes for the price of an airline ticket.
Lightcraft Technologies, Inc., headquartered in Bennington, VT, is launching a revolution in low-cost access to space, promoting the use of beamed energy propulsion to accelerate vehicles called Lightcraft into orbit for a fraction of the cost it currently takes to get any object into space.
Lightcraft Technologies, Inc. was incorporated for the specific purpose of developing beamed energy propulsion into a commercial reality. LTI defines a Lightcraft as any flight platform, air-borne vehicle, or spacecraft designed for propulsion by a beam of light. Leik Myrabo, the CEO of LTI and co-author Dean Ing, were the first to coin the word "Lightcraft" in their 1985 book The Future of Flight.
LTI believes that only laser propulsion holds the potential for providing the lowest cost micro-satellite launch services in the next five years. LTI believes that only beamed energy propulsion holds the promise of reducing the cost of space access by 100 X in the next 5-10 years, and ultimately enabling a 1000-fold cost reduction in the next 20 years for manned flights. Simultaneously, this energy-beam highway through the skies will also increase the reliability and safety of space travel to incredibly high levels - equivalent to today's airline operations or better. LTI intends to manufacture aerospace craft that ride "Highways of Light" directly into orbit, around the planet in 45 minutes, or to the moon in a single stage.
How can we do it?
Because 90% of the launch mass of conventional rockets is their chemical fuel, getting into space today is very expensive and the engines are stressed to their limits. Lightcraft can deliver payloads into space for a fraction of the cost of traditional rockets because most of the engine stays on the ground, thereby unburdening the craft from having to lift the energy source for its propulsion system. A ground-based laser is the power source that propels the Lightcraft into orbit. The backside of the craft is a large, highly polished parabolic mirror that is designed to capture the laser beam projected at it from the ground. This mirror focuses the pulsed beam into the shroud, rapidly heating the air and creating a blast wave that pushes this vehicle upward. As the beam is rapidly pulsed, the vehicle is continuously propelled forward, on its way to orbit.
The necessary technology to pull this off is all here today. High power laser technology, Lightcraft optics and materials, electronics, guidance and control systems are largely existing technology that is being tailored for a new application. A notable feature of this revolutionary space launch technology is that by far the most expensive part of the laser Lightcraft propulsion system (i.e., the laser and telescope) always remains on the ground and is never subjected to the risks of launch.
That's great, but does it fly?
Yes-Lightcraft have been tested in the New Mexico desert for the past 4 years, and on July 9, 1999, exceeded Goddard's initial flight of 41 feet by a factor of three. An exhilarating 128 vertical feet. At this point in the testing program, the principal factor holding back the Lightcraft from setting extreme altitude records is a more powerful laser. Good news: LTI has helped to uncover a vintage pulsed electric discharge carbon dioxide (CO2) laser that can propel our Lightcraft to the edge of space, after its subsequent upgrade to 100 kilowatts of beam power.
For the next 5 years, the company will focus its attention on developing technology for launching kilogram-class commercial micro-satellites with a megawatt ground-based infrared electric laser. Suitable commercial opportunities at the 100-kW level should at least include: a) space radiation hardness testing of small, but critical electronic components of future large satellites, and b) short term zero-G testing. These flights would be vertical sub-orbital "sounding rocket" trajectories to 50-100 km altitudes.
Is there investment opportunity? (top) (next) This vision of our future in space depends heavily upon significant investments in an energy-beaming infrastructure that inexpensive Lightcraft can ride. In the immediate future, LTI is seeking sponsors to explore major refinements of this revolutionary kind of laser propulsion engine and vehicle to bring the system to a much higher performance level than has been demonstrated to date. Additional funds are needed to develop and construct new prototypes, protect intellectual property rights, and obtain performance data from both laboratory experiments and outdoor flight-testing.
Last year, LTI successfully forged a partnership with a non-profit organization interested in promoting low cost access to space. Under this grant, LTI is developing a family of new and improved laser propulsion engine geometries, integrated with vehicle concepts that are specifically tailored for the micro-satellite launch application. These innovative prototype engine geometries will soon be tested in the laboratory with available pulsed CO2 lasers, in the quest for improved engine performance. With further engine/vehicle development and the construction of a suitable launch stand, these new laser Lightcraft will then be flight-tested outdoors, using the existing 10-kW carbon dioxide laser at WSMR.
Investors have the opportunity to get in at the ground floor and promote this revolutionary micro-satellite launch technology that will reduce payload delivery costs to unheard of levels after just a few years of research and development. Chemical rockets will not be able to compete for this class of payloads, once laser launch technology becomes commercially available. LTI's Lightcraft engine and vehicle development goals for the near future are intrinsically tied to the availability of high power lasers for performance testing. In the near future these "Highways of Light" will be unbelievably inexpensive and safe to ride for all of us. The full-sized embodiment of people-carrying Lightcraft is less than a generation away. This is the ambitious LTI company vision: To ultimately enable affordable orbital flights, for a space faring society.
Any plans for commercial applications?
LTI envisions a host of innovative applications for its proposed micro-satellite laser launch enterprise. Among these are high resolution imaging and mapping (Earth resources inventories, real estate subdivisions, state and local government tax parcels, etc.), global positioning systems, astronomical telescopes (1-meter diameter mirror for amateur and professional use), secure telecommunications (cellular phones, pagers), lightweight replacement electronic components (small, but urgently needed payloads) delivered to the International Space Station, as well as threat detection and tracking (military).
By exploiting the economies of scale, kilogram-class micro-satellites could cost less than the price of a new automobile. And, to accelerate them into orbit will cost no more than a few hundred dollars worth of electricity to run the megawatt closed-cycle electric laser.
Laser Powered SpaceCraft to Launch MicroSats
Washington DC - December 14, 1997 - The futuristic concept of small laser-propelled spacecraft has taken its first research flights towards reaching space. That progress has been measured by short flights of 2-20 seconds duration at a military research facility using a high power infrared (CO2) laser, a wavelength invisible to the naked eye.
The achievement can be likened to Robert Goddard's first successful flights of his liquid propellant chemical rocket that attained a height of 41 feet after a 2 1/2 second burn in March of 1926. In sharp contrast with Goddard's rockets, there is absolutely no fuel on board this prototype laser-boosted craft, which has a diameter of 15 cm, mass of 40-50 grams, machined from a solid block of 6061-T6 aluminum.
The Air Force Research Laboratory's Propulsion Directorate at Edwards AFB CA is conducting these technology development research and flight demonstrations. Additional research money has been provided this year by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Advanced Space Transportation Program. The laser propelled flights take place at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) in New Mexico at the High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility (HELSTF). The Lightcraft propulsion research employs the Pulsed Laser Vulnerability Test System (PLVTS), a 10 kilowatt laser built by AVCO TEXTRON for the Army. PLVTS is the highest average power, pulsed carbon dioxide laser presently operating in the United States.
The laser-propelled vehicle, called "Lightcraft" because it flies on a beam of laser light, is designed to harness the energy of a laser beam and convert it into propulsive thrust. The Lightcraft receives the kilojoule pulses from the PLVTS laser at a rate of 10 times per second upon the concentrating mirror that forms its rear section. The function of this parabolic mirror is to focus the pulsed laser energy into a ring-shaped "absorption/propulsion" chamber. Here the laser beam is concentrated to extremely high intensities, sufficient to momentarily burst the inlet air into a highly luminous plasma (10-30,000 K), with instantaneous pressures reaching tens of atmospheres providing thrust. This airbreathing pulsed detonation engine concept owes its origins to the German V1 "Buzz Bomb" of WW II that ran on aviation fuel.
The laser Lightcraft concept was first proposed and developed by Prof. Leik Myrabo of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York, under sponsorship of the Laser Propulsion Program of the former Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO). He is now collaborating with the Air Force Research Laboratory's Propulsion Directorate at Edwards AFB CA to conduct field tests to demonstrate how the craft can be propelled using available high powered lasers. Dr Franklin Mead of the lab's advanced propulsion group studied the initial SDIO proposal, and offered Myrabo a multi-year sabbatical position at the lab and assistance in developing and validating the concept.
Myrabo's original SDIO Lightcraft concept was designed as a single-stage-to-orbit spacecraft that would become a microsatellite upon reaching orbit. The spacecraft lifts-off in a laser propelled airbreathing engine mode, and as it nears Mach 5 speed and 30 km altitude, shifts into a laser propelled rocket mode. The airbreathing engine mode would develop quasi-steady thrust by pulsing at hundreds to thousands of times a second -- depending on the mach number and altitude flown along the boost trajectory into orbit. The rocket mode would use on-board propellant, in the form of liquid hydrogen or nitrogen, to convert and expand the laser energy for propulsion once the Lightcraft had climbed above the atmosphere. Unlike Goddard's rocket engine, no oxydizer is required. The SDIO study showed that all launch to orbital conditions for a laser propelled vehicle could be satisified by a single, high-power ground-based laser -- with, or without the aid of a low altitude laser relay mirror.
Myrabo and Mead are the project team co-directors for this laser Lightcraft research and development effort. Five different Lightcraft designs have been flight tested using the pointing and tracking system on the PLVTS laser, run by Stephen Squires and Chris Beairsto of WSMR's Directorate of Applied Technology Test and Simulation.
Laser boost capability has been demonstrated at the White Sands facility with Lightcraft reaching 14 feet vertically in 2-second gyroscopically stabilized free flights, as well as 400 foot horizontal guide-wire flights lasting 10 to 20 seconds.
The researchers plan to increase the Lightcraft's free flight altitude in November by moving the launch stand outside Test Cell #3, where the flights will no longer be limited by lab ceiling height. The near-term goal is to reach an altitude of 1 Kilometer in the next 18 months with the PLVTS laser. To climb even higher, e.g., 10 to 100 km or near the edge of space, will require re-activation of the 150-Kw pulsed "Driver" CO2 laser, now stored in Test Cell #2 at HELSTF. Preparations are underway to enlist this powerful infrared laser that was developed at the AVCO Research Laboratory (Everett, MA) in the mid '70's -- under the guidance of Dr. Arthur Kantrowitz, a long time advocate of laser propulsion.
The predominant reason for investigating this laser launch concept is its low cost, simplicity and responsiveness upon demand. Laser Lightcraft and their propulsion modes are a radical departure from the chemically fueled rockets used today. If successful, this new energy beam propulsion technology will supplement rather than replace current manned and unmanned launch systems.
The approach holds great promise for reducing the launch costs of microsatellites by several orders of magnitude less than today's chemical-fueled rocket technology. The evolution of ultra-lightweight high temperature materials, dual-mode laser propulsion engines, powerful lasers, and the opportunity to change science fiction into scientific fact are the driving forces behind this joint AFRL/ MSFC research effort, pursueing an innovative and promising method for reaching space.
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