- From: donie <donienext@xxxxxxxxx>
- Date: Fri, 8 Aug 2008 05:08:34 -0700 (PDT)
On Aug 8, 5:40 pm, sam1...@xxxxxxxxxxx wrote:
On Aug 8, 12:41 am, donie <donien...@xxxxxxxxx> wrote:
Sam, you are asking for a proof again. Let's go back a bit. You are
I do not agree with you. To muslims , your bible is already a
corrupted book , we do not need it for our faith. My contention
is that you christians do not even know your own bible.I keep
on asking for a response to the verses that were quoted. I
quoted them word for word with no changes. If you don't agree
on the interpretation , then what is the alternate interpretation?
Those verses foretell the coming of Jesus Christ.
Then you have got to show the proof and not just sweeping
it with a broad brush. I have listed the verses. What is the
interpretation from your side? I provided the interpretation
from my end with tests to the interpretation. You have not
provided such. Following up on what you mentioned before,
we need to show proof when making a claim. You also nee
to do one better ...... you have got to apply tests to the verses
when making such claims. I need to see that from you.
the one who contain that your prophet muhammat is foretold in
Christianity bible. I argued it should be you moslems supporting your
own claim. You shouldn't ask christians to proof that your claim is
right. You agree, but then you ask :"then what is the alternate
interpretation?" I replied : "Those verses foretell the coming of
Gee.. Sam, you are asking us to prove our own interpretation of our
own books. We can certainly provide you how we arive at our
interpretation, but I can tell you from the onset that that wouldn't
serve the purpose of supporting your claim. Our interpretation would
only be 'proving' to our own eyes. Aren't you emotional rather than
logical expecting Christians to buy your interpretation of the
selected bible verses you quote? What would then that serve? You
already state that you don't believe in the bible, corrupted, you say.
You also say that you already have enough faith and confidence of the
prophethood of Muhammat without bible materials.
But then, I thought, who new that my friend Sam was really someone for
the catch of the 'parakletos', the Holy Spirit? Here is a lengthy
refutation of the not so famous claim, which necessarily contain our
interpretation and the tests, as you term it, Sam. Happy reading!
Is Muhammad Foretold in the Bible?
by John Gilchrist
MUHAMMAD IN THE BIBLE?
MOSES AND THE PROPHET
1. The Word of God in the Prophet's mouth
2. A prophet from among their Brethren
3. A Prophet like unto Moses
4. Jesus - the Prophet like unto Moses
JESUS AND THE COMFORTER
MUHAMMAD IN THE BIBLE?
During 1975 Ahmed Deedat held a series of lectures at the Durban City
Hall, two of which set out to prove that Muhammad is foretold in the
Bible. The first lecture, entitled "What the Bible Says About
Muhammad", dealt with the prophecy in Deuteronomy 18.18 in the Old
Testament, and in it Mr. Deedat sought to show that Moses was
predicting the coming of Muhammad when speaking of a prophet to follow
him who would be like him. During 1976 Mr. Deedat published this
lecture in booklet form under the same title. In his second lecture in
1975 he spoke on "Muhammad the Natural Successor to Christ" and here
he endeavoured to prove that Jesus was foretelling the coming of
Muhammad when he exhorted his disciples to wait for the coming of the
one he called the Comforter who, he said, would follow him.
Deedat's lectures were typical of numerous similar attempts that have
been made by Muslim writers over the years to make these two
particular prophecies fit Muhammad. The effort has generally arisen
from a verse in the Qur'an which states that the coming of Muhammad
was foretold in the Jewish and the Christian Scriptures. It reads:
Those who follow the Apostle, the unlettered Prophet, whom they
find mentioned in their own (Scriptures) - in the Law and the Gospel.
It is not surprising, therefore, to find that Muslims have searched
exhaustively through the "Law and the Gospel" (the Tawrat and the
Injil, the Old and New Testaments respectively) for proof that these
two books indeed contain prophecies of the coming of Muhammad. The
Qur'an seems to suggest that these prophecies would be found in the
Torah and the Gospel without much difficulty, but when Muslims have
applied themselves to finding these alleged predictions, they have
been unpleasantly surprised to discover that in these two books it is
Jesus who is the subject of the many prophecies in them and not
Muhammad. The birth of Jesus, his ministry, parables, miracles,
crucifixion, resurrection, ascension, second coming, deity, glory and
honour are the concerns of the prophetic texts of the Torah and the
Gospel, and so extensively do these prophecies herald his advent as
the ultimate climax of God's revealed truth and love towards men that
one cannot help but be struck by the fact that the Bible makes no
allowance for the anti-climax of a "prophet" to follow him. Such
prophecies are conspicuous only by their absence.
Nevertheless, spurred on by the assurance in the Qur'an that the Bible
indeed foretells the coming of Muhammad, Muslims have made every
effort to find these prophecies. The obvious dearth of material in
support of their quest has led most of them to wisely rely solely on
the two prophecies we have already mentioned - one in each of the
Testaments -, to prove their claim. Others, like Kaldani and
Vidyarthy, have unwisely tried to apply every major prophecy in the
Bible to Muhammad (including striking predictions of the crucifixion,
atoning work and resurrection of Jesus Christ in Isaiah 53 for
example!), but the shameless twists of interpretation that they have
been compelled to resort to together with an abdication of all reason
in their efforts to prove their points has fortunately restrained
other Muslims from following in their steps and they have accordingly
relied solely on the two prophecies we have mentioned, one by Moses
and one by Jesus respectively.
We are in the circumstances entitled to presume that these two
prophecies are believed by the Muslims to be the strongest in support
of their claims. Accordingly, if it can be proved that these texts do
not in any way refer to Muhammad, or anticipate his advent or
prophethood, then the whole theory that Muhammad is foretold in the
Bible must simultaneously fall to the ground.
We shall therefore in this booklet generously consider the strongest
evidence of the Muslims that Muhammad is foretold in these two
passages and will, in the light of the context of each passage, and of
other factors crucial to a proper determination of the matter, decide
whether the evidence is sufficient to prove the point or whether the
case must ultimately be found to go against them.
It is universally accepted in all civilised communities that if a
matter is to be determined properly, all the relevant evidence must be
weighed together and all irrelevant evidence must be ignored
accordingly. No matter how great the temptation may be to ignore the
relevant facts while giving undue weight to the irrelevant ones if
this is the only way a matter can be decided in one's favour, the man
who really loves the truth and seeks for it will resist the
temptation. It is our sincere hope that the Muslims who read this
document will do likewise.
MOSES AND THE PROPHET
"I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their
brethren; and I will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak to
them all that I command him".
Whenever Muslims seek to establish that Muhammad is foretold in the
Torah, the Old Testament, they invariably refer to this verse as the
one obvious prophecy in support of their claim. They argue that the
prophet who was promised by God to Moses was Muhammad because:
1. The Qur'an is allegedly the Word of God and therefore, as Muhammad
recited each passage that was delivered to him, he had the words of
God put into his mouth in accordance with the words of this prophecy;
2. The prophet to come would be from among the brethren of the
Israelites, hence the Ishmaelites, because Israel (Jacob) and Ishmael
were both descended from Abraham, and the tribes who descended from
the twelve sons of Ishmael are therefore "brethren" of the tribes who
descended from the twelve sons of Israel. As Muhammad was the only
Ishmaelite to claim prophethood in the line of the Old Testament
prophets, they aver that the prophecy can only refer to him;
3. Muhammad was like Moses in so many ways that the prophecy can only
refer to him.
We shall consider these claims briefly and will do so in the light of
the context of the prophecy, for this is the only way that a correct
interpretation of the text can be obtained. Every intelligent
expositor of scripture knows that no passage can be fairly interpreted
if it is isolated from its context. Therefore it is essential to quote
from the whole passage in which the prophecy is found and the
following two extracts are of great importance:
The Levitical priests, that is, all the tribe of Levi, shall have
no portion or inheritance with Israel; they shall eat the offerings by
fire to the Lord, and his rightful dues. They shall have no
inheritance among their brethren; the Lord is their inheritance as he
The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from
among you, from your brethren - him shall you heed - just as you
desired of the Lord your God at Horeb on the day of the assembly, when
you said, 'Let me not hear again the voice of the Lord my God, or see
this great fire any more, lest I die'. And the Lord said to me, 'They
have rightly said all that they have spoken. I will raise up for them
a prophet like you from among their brethren; and I will put my words
in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I shall command him.
And whoever will not give heed to my words which he shall speak in my
name, I myself will require it of him. But the prophet who presumes to
speak a word in my name which I have not commanded him to speak, or
who speaks in the name of other gods, that same prophet shall die'.
We shall proceed to briefly consider the three points that supposedly
prove that Muhammad is the prophet referred to in the text and
thereafter will, in the light of the context of the passage, discover
precisely which prophet is referred to in the prophecy contained in
1. THE WORD OF GOD IN THE PROPHET'S MOUTH.
Christians do not believe that the Qur'an is the Word of God but,
purely for the sake of argument, we shall proceed as if God did indeed
put his words in Muhammad's mouth to discover whether this might prove
that Muhammad is the prophet referred to in Deuteronomy 18.18. In our
view the statement "I will put my words in his mouth" does not help to
identify the prophet referred to at all. It is true of every prophet
that God has put his words in his mouth. For God said to Jeremiah:
"Behold I have put my words in your mouth".
Furthermore we also read in Deuteronomy 18.18 that the prophet to
follow Moses "shall speak to them all that I command him". Now we read
that Jesus once said to his disciples:
"For I have not spoken on my own authority; the Father who sent me
has himself given me commandment what to say and what to speak. And I
know that his commandment is eternal life. What I say, therefore, I
say as the Father has bidden me".
A similar text which illustrates this point is found in the great
prayer which Jesus prayed on the last night that he was with his
disciples. He said:
"I have given them the words which thou gavest me".
In no way, therefore, can the identity of the prophet in the text of
Deuteronomy 18.18 be established from the fact that God would put his
words in his mouth. With every prophet who is true this is the case
and the great prophet referred to in the text, who would be uniquely
like Moses in a way that none of the other prophets were, must
accordingly be identified from other sources.
2. A PROPHET FROM AMONG THEIR BRETHREN.
Muslims allege that the expression "their brethren" in Deuteronomy
18.18 means the brethren of the Israelites, hence the Ishmaelites. In
this case, however, if we are truly to discover the real identity of
the prophet who would be like Moses, we must consider the expression
in its context.
God said, "I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among
their brethren." Of whom is God speaking when he speaks of "them" and
"their"? When we go back to the first two verses of Deuteronomy 18 we
find the answer:
"The Levitical priests, that is, all the tribe of Levi, shall have
no portion or inheritance with Israel ... they shall have no
inheritance among their brethren".
It is abundantly clear from these two verses that "they" refers to the
tribe of Levi and that "their brethren" refers to the remaining eleven
tribes of Israel. This is an inescapable fact. No honest method of
interpretation or consistent method of exposition can possibly allow
that Deuteronomy 18.18 refers to anyone else than the tribe of Levi
and the remaining tribes of Israel. Let us briefly examine the only
possible exposition of the prophecy that can lead to a correct
interpretation and identification of "their brethren". We need only
accentuate the relevant words from Deuteronomy 18.1-2 to discover the
only possible conclusion that can be drawn. The text reads:
"The tribe of Levi shall have no inheritance with ISRAEL. They
shall have no inheritance among THEIR BRETHEREN".
Therefore the only logical interpretation of Deuteronomy 18.18 can be:
"I will raise up for them (that is, the tribe of Levi) a prophet like
you from among their brethren (that is, one of the other tribes of
Israel)". Indeed throughout the Old Testament one often finds the
expression "their brethren" meaning the remaining tribes of Israel as
distinct from the tribe specifically referred to. Let us consider this
verse as an example:
But the children of Benjamin would not listen to the voice of
their brethren, the children of Israel.
Here "their brethren" is specifically stated to be the other tribes of
Israel as distinct from the tribe of Benjamin. In Deuteronomy 18.18,
therefore, "their brethren" clearly means the brethren in Israel of
the tribe of Levi. Again in Numbers 8.26 the tribe of Levi is
commanded to minister to "their brethren", that is, the remaining
tribes of Israel. In 2 Kings 24.12 the tribe of Judah is distinguished
from "their brethren", once again the remaining tribes of Israel.
(Further scriptures proving the point are Judges 21.22, 2 Samuel 2.26,
2 Kings 23.9, 1 Chronicles 12.32, 2 Chronicles 28.15, Nehemiah 5.1 and
Indeed in Deuteronomy 17.15 we read that Moses on one occasion said to
the Israelites "One from among your brethren you shall set as king
over you; you may not put a foreigner over you, who is not your
brother". Only an Israelite could be appointed king of Israel - "one
from among your brethren" - no foreigner, be he Ishmaelite, Edomite or
whoever he may be, could be made King of Israel because he was not one
of "their brethren", that is, a member of one of the tribes of Israel.
At this stage, therefore, we have a fatal objection to the theory that
Muhammad is foretold in Deuteronomy 18.18. He was an Ishmaelite and
accordingly is automatically disqualified from being the prophet whose
coming was foretold in that verse. The prophet was obviously to come
from one of the tribes of Israel other than the tribe of Levi. God
said he would raise up a prophet for the Levites like Moses from among
"their brethren", that is, from one of the other tribes of Israel. As
we intend to prove that Jesus was the prophet whose coming was
foretold it will be appropriate to mention at this stage that he was
descended from the tribe of Judah (Matthew 1.2, Hebrews 7.14). He is
therefore ably qualified to be the prophet who would be raised up from
among the brethren of the Levites.
3. A PROPHET LIKE UNTO MOSES.
The Islamic publications listed in the Bibliography to this booklet
are full of comparisons between Moses and Muhammad where evidence is
brought forward of certain likenesses between them. These publications
also produce many differences between Jesus and Moses as the authors
try to disprove that Jesus is the prophet whose coming was foretold in
In his booklet "What the Bible Says About Muhummed" Mr. Deedat
produces a number of similarities between Moses and Muhammad which he
claims do not exist between Moses and Jesus. Most of these are
meaningless, however, and only serve to show the supreme uniqueness of
Jesus over against the whole human race. For example, Deedat argues
that Moses and Muhammad were both born naturally of human parents and
are buried on earth, whereas Jesus was born of a virgin-woman, had no
earthly father, and ascended to heaven (Deedat, What the Bible Says
About Muhummed", p. 7, 12). It is obvious that all men have natural
parents and go back to the dust, and all Mr. Deedat is doing is to
reveal certain ways in which Jesus was absolutely unique among men.
This does not help to identify the prophet predicted by Moses,
In the publications referred to we do find occasionally more prominent
likenesses between Moses and Muhammad which do need to be analysed
more carefully. Three such comparisons are:
1. Moses and Muhammad became the lawgivers, military leaders, and
spiritual guides of their peoples and nations;
2. Moses and Muhammad were at first rejected by their own people, fled
into exile, but returned some years later to become the religious and
secular leaders of their nations;
3. Moses and Muhammad made possible the immediate and successful
conquests of the land of Palestine after their deaths by their
followers, Joshua and Umar respectively.
At the same time it is alleged in these publications that Jesus and
Moses were so different, according to Christian belief, that Jesus
cannot be the prophet referred to. Such differences are these:
1. Moses was only a prophet but, according to Christian belief, Jesus
is the Son of God;
2. Moses died naturally but Jesus died violently;
3. Moses was the national ruler of Israel which Jesus was not at any
time during his ministry here on earth.
We are constrained to ask: do these similarities and contrasts in any
way prove that Muhammad is the prophet like Moses whose coming was
foretold in Deuteronomy 18.18? It is the easiest of matters to show
that this sort of reasoning will in no way assist us to discover the
real identity of the prophet. Firstly, none of the alleged differences
between Moses and Jesus are of any importance. The Bible often calls
Jesus a prophet as well as the Son of God (see, for example, Matthew
13.57, 21.11, and John 4.44) and the fact that Jesus died violently is
hardly relevant to the issues at stake. Many prophets were killed by
the Jews for their testimonies, a fact to which both the Bible and the
Qur'an bear witness, (cf. Matthew 23.31, Surah 2.91). Furthermore the
Bible teaches that the Christian Church as a whole has replaced the
nation of Israel in this age as the collective object of God's special
favours. Likewise, whereas Moses led that nation during his life on
earth, so Jesus today heads the Church of God from his throne in
heaven above. In this respect, therefore, he is really like Moses.
Secondly, if we reverse the process we can show many similarities
between Moses and Jesus where Muhammad at the same time can be
contrasted with them. Some of these are:
1. Moses and Jesus were Israelites - Muhammad was an Ishmaelite. (This
is, as we have seen, a crucial factor in really determining the
identity of the prophet who was to follow Moses).
2. Moses and Jesus both left Egypt to perform God's work - Muhammad
was never in Egypt. Of Moses we read: "By faith he forsook
Egypt" (Hebrews 11.27). Of Jesus we read: "Out of Egypt have I called
my Son" (Matthew 2.15).
3. Moses and Jesus forsook great wealth to share the poverty of their
people which Muhammad did not. Of Moses we read: "He considered abuse
suffered for the Christ greater wealth than all the treasures of
Egypt" and that he chose "to share ill-treatment with the people of
God" (Hebrews 11.25-26). Of Jesus we read: "For you know the grace of
our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet for your sakes he
became poor, so that by his poverty you might become rich" (2
So we have similarities between Moses and Jesus where Muhammad can be
contrasted with them. This shows how weak the Muslim method of
comparing Moses with Muhammad (while contrasting them with Jesus) is,
for it works both ways. How then can we truly identify the prophet who
was to be like Moses?
As there were numerous prophets down the ages, it is logical to assume
that this prophet would be uniquely like Moses in a way that none of
the other prophets were. Clearly the prophet to come would emulate him
in the exceptional and unique characteristics of his prophethood.
Indeed we would expect that God would give some indication in the
prophecy of the distinguishing features of this prophet who was to be
like Moses. We only have to refer to the context of the prophecy to
find this striking verse which very clearly gives us an indication of
the nature of the prophet to follow:
"The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from
among you, from your brethren - him you shall heed - just as you
desired of the Lord your God at Horeb on the day of the assembly, when
you said, 'Let me not hear again the voice of the Lord my God or see
this great fire any more, lest I die' ".
The prophet would be raised up just as God had raised Moses up as the
mediator of the covenant which he gave at Horeb. The Israelites
pleaded with Moses to become a mediator between them and God because
they did not wish to hear God's voice face to face, and God said "They
have rightly said all that they have spoken" (Deuteronomy 18.17). God
henceforth raised Moses up as the mediator of the covenant between
himself and Israel. We need also to consider that God spoke to Moses
in a very special way as well and in the Bible we read:
Thus the Lord used to speak to Moses face to face, as a man speaks
to his friend.
The Qur'an also teaches that God spoke directly to Moses in a way in
which he did not speak to other prophets (Surah 4.164). Furthermore,
to confirm the great mediatorial work which Moses was to perform, God
did great signs and miracles through him in the presence of all
Israel. Now as God had promised that the prophet to come would be like
him in this mediatorial work, we must conclude that the distinguishing
features of the prophet would be these:
1. He would be the direct mediator of a covenant between God and his
2. He would know God face to face;
3. His office would be confirmed by great signs and wonders which he
would do by the power of God in the sight of all the nation of Israel.
This conclusion is in fact clearly established by these last words in
the Book of Deuteronomy:
And there has not arisen a prophet since in Israel like Moses,
whom the Lord knew face to face, none like him for all the signs and
wonders which the Lord sent him to do in the land of Egypt, to Pharaoh
and to all his servants and to all his land, and for all the mighty
power and all the great and terrible deeds which Moses performed in
the sight of all Israel.
The three distinguishing features of Moses as a prophet are clearly
mentioned: he was the mediator between God and Israel, he knew the
Lord face to face, and he did great signs and wonders. The prophet
like him would obviously have to emulate these unique features of his
prophethood. Did Muhammad possess these exceptional characteristics by
which the prophet was to be recognised?
Firstly, whereas God spoke directly to Moses, so that he was a direct
mediator between God and the people of Israel, the Qur'an is alleged
to have come at all times from the Angel Gabriel to Muhammad and at no
time did God directly communicate it to him face to face, as the
Muslims themselves admit. He also did not mediate a covenant between
God and the people of Israel.
Secondly, Muhammad performed no signs and wonders. Although the Hadith
record some fanciful miracles, these are purely mythical, for the
Qur'an very clearly says of Muhammad that he performed no signs. In
Surah 6.37, when Muhammad's adversaries say "Why has no sign been sent
down to him from his Lord?", Muhammad is bidden to reply merely that
God could send one if he wanted to but had not done so. In the same
Surah we read that Muhammad said, "I have not that for which you are
impatient" (Surah 6.57), meaning signs and wonders such as Moses had.
He goes on to say that if he had had them, the dispute between him and
them would have been decided long ago.
Again in the same Surah Muhammad's adversaries say they will believe
if signs come from God, but he only replies that God has reserved them
because they would still disbelieve anyway (as indeed the Jews did
with Jesus - John 12.37). Furthermore the Qur'an also says that
Muhammad's adversaries in Mecca also once said to him:
"Why are not (signs) sent to him, like those which were sent to
The answer the Qur'an gives is much the same - they rejected the signs
of Moses anyway, so why do they now expect Muhammad to perform signs?
Nevertheless, in terms of the prophecy in Deuteronomy 18.18, this was
a very poignant and significant observation for it plainly
distinguishes between Moses and Muhammad in the very important matter
of performing signs and wonders. How indeed could Muhammad possibly be
the prophet whose coming was foretold in Deuteronomy 18.18 if he was
not granted the power to perform the kind of signs and wonders
performed by Moses? In this case, therefore, he was definitely not
like Moses in one of the vital, distinguishing characteristics of his
prophethood. The Qur'an has its own testimony to this effect.
So we find that Muhammad was not a direct mediator between God and
man, nor could he do any signs and wonders to confirm his office.
Deuteronomy 34.11 makes it essential that the prophet like Moses would
do similar signs and wonders to those which Moses did, and as Muhammad
did not, we have a second fatal objection against the theory that he
is the prophet foretold in Deuteronomy 18.18. We can conclude by
saying that whatever evidence the Muslims may produce in favour of
their assertion, the really relevant and crucial evidence needed to
prove the point is not only unfavourable in his case but in fact
fatally rules out the possibility that he might indeed be the prophet
of whom Moses spoke.
4. JESUS - THE PROPHET LIKE UNTO MOSES.
Considering now whether Jesus is the prophet referred to, let us begin
by answering a few typical objections raised by the Muslims. Firstly,
if he was the Christ, they say he could not be the prophet to follow
Moses, because the Jews distinguished between Elijah, the Christ, and
the prophet (John 1. 19-21). The argument goes that John the Baptist
is believed by the Christians to have come in the spirit of Elijah,
Jesus was the Christ, and Muhammad, therefore, must have been the
prophet. We have already shown, however, that it is impossible for
Muhammad to be the prophet. In any even nothing conclusive can be
construed from the speculations of the Jews. They once said of Jesus:
"This is indeed the prophet" (John 7.40). On another occasion they
said he was "one of the prophets" (Matthew 16.14), on another "a
prophet" (Mark 6.15) and worse still thought of him as both Elijah
(Mark 6.15) and John the Baptist himself (Matthew 16.14).
It needs to be pointed out that the Bible does not teach that Elijah,
the Christ, and the prophet were to come in that order. The questions
put by the Jews to John, whether he was Elijah, the Christ, or the
prophet, merely expressed their own hopes and expectations of
figureheads to come. In the light of their confusion, however, we can
see that no serious consideration can be given to the distinctions
they made between the Christ and the prophet. It is also important to
note that the predictions of the prophet, etc., were made in the
reverse order in the Old Testament (the prophet was promised by Moses,
most of the prophecies of the coming Christ were set out in the
writings of the later prophets, and the promise of the coming of
Elijah only appears at the end of the book in Malachi 4.5).
Furthermore no deliberate distinction between the prophet and the
Christ was ever drawn in these prophecies and it is not surprising to
find the Jews in one breath proclaiming that Jesus was indeed both the
prophet and the Christ (John 7.40-41).
Another favourite objection is that Jesus died at the hands of the
Jews and God said, in Deuteronomy 18.20, that only the self-styled
prophets would die. Every prophet, however, died - many violently as
the Qur'an and the Bible jointly testify - and the mere physical death
of a prophet was certainly no evidence against his divine mission. God
obviously did not mean that every true prophet would not die! What he
meant was that a false prophet was to be put to death and would perish
eternally - and all his prophecies with him. Only Judgment Day will
reveal all the false prophets of the ages.
What we are ultimately concerned about is this - God gave a definite
promise that a prophet would arise like Moses who would mediate
another covenant and that signs would accompany this covenant to
confirm its heavenly origin. The very Bible that contains the prophecy
of the prophet to come confirms quite clearly that that prophet was
Jesus Christ. The Apostle Peter, claiming that God had foretold the
coming of Jesus Christ through all the prophets, appealed specifically
to Deuteronomy 18.18 as proof that Moses had done so (Acts 3.22).
Jesus himself said, "Moses wrote of me" (John 5.46) and it is
difficult to find elsewhere in the five books of Moses such a direct
prophecy of his advent. Peter chose Deuteronomy 18.18 as the one
distinctive prophecy in all the writings of Moses of the coming of
Jesus Christ into the world.
Likewise in Acts 7.37 Stephen appealed to Deuteronomy 18.18 as proof
that Moses was one of those who had "announced beforehand the coming
of the Righteous One", Jesus, the one whom the Jews had recently
betrayed and crucified.
After witnessing all the signs that Jesus had done and after taking
part in the New Covenant which he had mediated face-to-face between
God and his people, the early Christians knew that Jesus was the
prophet whose coming was foretold in Deuteronomy 18.18. They also knew
that the prophecy of a prophet to come like Moses had been
supplemented by God's promise to the prophet Jeremiah that he would
mediate a new covenant in the days to come between himself and his
people. For in speaking of this new covenant God clearly distinguished
between it and the old covenant he had made with Moses and it was
therefore obvious that the one who would mediate it would be the
prophet whose coming Moses had foretold. God said:
"Behold, the days are coming, says the Lord, when I will make a
new covenant with the house of Israel and the house of Judah, not like
the covenant which I made with their fathers when I took them by the
hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt, my covenant which they
broke, though I was their husband, says the Lord. But this is the
covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days,
says the Lord: I will put my law within them, and I will write it upon
their hearts; and I will be their God and they shall be my people. And
no longer shall each man teach his neighbour and each his brother,
saying 'Know the Lord', for they shall all know me, from the least of
them to the greatest, says the Lord; for I will forgive their
iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more".
"I will make a new covenant", God said, thereby confirming the promise
in Deuteronomy 18 that a prophet would come to mediate between God and
his people in the likeness of Moses. The promised new covenant was
directly compared with the covenant God had made with Moses. The
covenant would be different to that given through Moses but the
prophet who would mediate it would be like him. It is therefore quite
obvious that the prophet whose coming was foretold in Deuteronomy
18.18 would be the one to mediate this new covenant between God and
his people. And we read: "Therefore Jesus is the mediator of a new
covenant" (Hebrews 9.15). To ratify the first covenant we read that:
Moses took the blood and threw it upon the people, and said,
'Behold the blood of the covenant which the Lord has made with you in
accordance with all these words'.
Just as the first covenant had therefore been ratified by the blood of
a sacrificial offering, so the prophet to follow Moses would be like
him and would also ratify God's new covenant with blood. And Jesus
"This cup is the new covenant in my blood".
1 Corinthians 11.25
God's promise of the coming of a prophet like Moses who would mediate
a new covenant was one of the great blessings in the days preceding
the advent of Jesus Christ. Although God mediated the old covenant
through Moses, the blazing fire the Israelites saw together with the
tempests and other portents made them "entreat that no further
messages be spoken to them. For they could not endure the order that
was given" (Hebrews 12.19-20). They all broke the covenant (Jeremiah
31.31) and died in the wilderness like flies (1 Corinthians 10.5).
They failed to receive the life that was promised to those who abided
by the old covenant.
Therefore God promised to their descendants that he would raise up
another prophet like Moses and would mediate a new covenant through
him which God's people would both give heed to and obtain the promised
blessings accompanying it - true knowledge of God, forgiveness of
sins, power to keep God's law, and the public favour of God (Jeremiah
31.33-34). This new covenant Jesus brought in in due time.
Unlike the Israelites under the old covenant who fell by the wayside,
the people of God through this new covenant have come "to the assembly
of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven, and to a judge who is God
of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect, and to Jesus, the
mediator of a new covenant, and to the sprinkled blood that speaks
more graciously than the blood of Abel" (Hebrews 12.23-24). This is
the covenant which Jesus brought in.
Jesus therefore is the promised prophet like Moses for he mediated the
new covenant between God and his people. Like Moses (and in a way in
which no other prophet could compare), he also knew God face-to-face
and became a direct mediator between God and men. "I know him, I come
from him, and he sent me", Jesus said (John 7.29). Again he
proclaimed: "No one knows the Father except the Son, and anyone to
whom the Son chooses to reveal him" (Matthew 11.27). And yet again
Jesus said: "Not that anyone has ever seen the Father except him who
is from God - he has seen the Father" (John 6.46). And what further
evidence do we need that Jesus knew God face-to-face and is the direct
mediator between him and men than these two verses: "I am the Way, the
Truth, and the Life. No one comes to the Father but by me ... Anyone
who has seen me has seen the Father" (John 14.6, 14.9).
When he spoke to God face-to-face, "Moses did not know that the skin
of his face shone while he talked with him" (Exodus 34. 29-30). When
the image of the invisible God was directly revealed through the
transfigured face of Jesus Christ, "his face did shine as the
sun" (Matthew 17.2). No other prophet could claim such a distinction -
no one else knew God face-to-face in such a way that his face shone
while he communed with him.
Not only was the new covenant mediated through Jesus who knew God face-
to-face as Moses had done, but he too performed great signs and
wonders to confirm his mediatorial work. One of the greatest signs
that Moses did was to control the sea: "Moses stretched out his hand
over the sea; and the Lord caused the sea to go back by a strong east
wind" (Exodus 14.21). Although other prophets had power over rivers
(Joshua 3.13, 2 Kings 2.14), no other prophet emulated him in
controlling the sea until Jesus came and we read that his disciples
exclaimed "What manner of man is this, that even the winds and the sea
obey him?" (Matthew 8.27). He caused a raging storm on the Sea of
Galilee to cease with just three words: "Peace - be still" (Mark
Another of the great signs that Moses did was the feeding of the
Israelites with bread from heaven. When the Israelites at the time of
Jesus saw him perform a similar miracle by feeding no less than five
thousand people with just a few loaves of bread they were convinced
that he was the promised prophet.
When the people saw the sign which he had done, they said, 'This
is indeed the prophet who is to come into the world'.
When they saw the sign, they said "This is the prophet". They knew
well enough that the promised prophet would be recognised among other
things by the performance of signs similar to those which Moses had
done. When Jesus gave no indication of repeating the sign, the
Israelites recalled that Moses had performed his feat for forty years
unabated. So they said to Jesus, "What sign do you do that we may see
and believe you?" (John 6.30), appealing to Moses' act of sustaining
the lives of their forefathers in the wilderness. Jesus replied:
"I am the Bread of Life. Your fathers ate the manna in the
wilderness, and they died. This is the bread which comes down from
heaven that a man may eat of it and not die. I am the living bread
which came down from heaven; if anyone eats of this bread, he will
live for ever; and the bread which I shall give for the life of the
world is my flesh".
In every way he gave proof that he was the prophet who was to come -
one to mediate a covenant like that mediated through Moses at Horeb -
one who would know God face-to-face - one who would perform great
signs and wonders as Moses had done. In every way the Jews were right
on this one point when they said "This is really the prophet" (John
So it is proved that Muhammad is not foretold in Deuteronomy 18.18 but
rather that the prophet whose coming was foretold in that verse was
Jesus Christ. We shall go on to see that if Muhammad is not foretold
on the Old Testament, neither is he foretold in the New Testament.
We shall again see that Jesus Christ is the climax of all prophecy in
all the revealed scriptures of God. For all the promises, revelations
and blessings of God are vested in him - the fountainhead of the love
and favour of God towards men.
For all the promises of God find their Yes in him. That is why we
utter the Amen through him, to the glory of God.
2 Corinthians 1.20
We shall also see, even more clearly, that in the Torah and the Gospel
there is only one Saviour, one man alone through whom the favour of
God can be obtained. While there were many prophets in ages past -
both true and false - yet for us there is only one Lord and one
Saviour - Jesus Christ. Again it will be seen how deeply God wishes to
impress this truth upon all men that they may believe in and follow
Jesus Christ into the Kingdom of Heaven.
For all who do not heed his words or believe in him with all their
hearts, there remains only a "fearful prospect of judgment" (Hebrews
10.27) when God will fulfill his warning in Deuteronomy 18.19 by
requiring of them their unbelief in the Saviour he sent and he will
surely dismiss them, one and all, from his presence for ever and ever.
Believe in the Lord Jesus Christ and you will be saved, you and
JESUS AND THE COMFORTER
Whenever Muslims seek to prove that Muhammad is foretold in the New
Testament, they immediately appeal to the promise of Jesus that the
"Comforter" would follow him and claim that this Comforter was
Muhammad (particularly as in the Qur'an, Jesus is alleged to have
foretold the coming of Muhammad in Surah 61.6 in similar language).
Whereas the Revised Standard Version uses the word "Counsellor" rather
than "Comforter", we shall use the word "Comforter" throughout this
chapter because it is more familiar to the Muslims. The texts where
the Comforter is mentioned by Jesus are:
"And I will pray the Father, and he will give you another
Comforter, to be with you for ever, even the Spirit of Truth, whom the
world cannot receive, because it neither sees him nor knows him; you
know him, for he dwells with you, and will be in you".
"But the Comforter, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in
my name, he will teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance
all that I have said to you".
"But when the Comforter comes, whom I shall send you from the
Father, even the Spirit of Truth, who proceeds from the Father, he
will bear witness to me".
"Nevertheless I tell you the truth: it is to your advantage that I
go away, for if I do not go away, the Comforter will not come to you;
but if I go, I will send him to you".
It is generally alleged by Muslims that the Greek word
"paracletos" (meaning Comforter, Counsellor, Advocate, etc., in
effect, one who unites men to God) is not the original word but that
Jesus in fact foretold the coming of Muhammad by name and that the
translation of his name into Greek (or at least the meaning of his
name in Greek) is "periklutos", that is, the "praised one".
There is not a shred of evidence in favour of the assertion that the
original word was "periklutos". We have thousands of New Testament
manuscripts pre-dating Islam and not one of these contains the word
"periklutos". In view of the fact that Muslims are prone to levelling
false allegations that Christians are regularly changing the Bible, it
is rather intriguing to find that they have no scruples about doing
this themselves when it suits them to do so. In any event a cursory
reading of the texts where the word "paracletos" appears will show
that this is the only word that suits the context as I will show in
one instance later on in this chapter.
Some wiser Muslims admit that "paracletos" is correct, but they claim
in any event that Muhammad was the Comforter whom Jesus was referring
to. Let us briefly examine some of the texts in a truly exegetical
manner to discover whether Muhammad is indeed the Comforter whose
coming Jesus foretold.
It is quite obvious from the four texts quoted that Comforter, Holy
Spirit, and Spirit of Truth are interchangeable terms and that Jesus
is speaking of the same person in each instance. The one obvious fact
that emerges is that the Comforter is a spirit. (The fact that Jesus
always speaks of the Spirit in the masculine gender in no way suggests
that the Comforter must be a man as some of the publications in the
Bibliography suggest. God himself is always spoken of in both the
Bible and the Qur'an in the masculine gender and God is spirit - John
4.24. In the same way Jesus always speaks of the Comforter as a spirit
and not as a man).
If we apply sound exegesis to John 14.16-17 we shall discover no less
than eight reasons why the Comforter cannot possibly be Muhammad.
1. "He will give YOU another Comforter".
Jesus promised his disciples that God would send the Comforter to
them. He would send the Spirit of Truth to Peter, and to John, and to
the rest of the disciples - not to Meccans. Medinans or Arabians.
2. "He will give you ANOTHER Comforter".
If, as Muslims allege, the original word was periklutos and that
Christians changed it into paracletos, then the sentence would have
read, "He will give you another praised one". This statement is both
out of place in its context and devoid of support elsewhere in the
Bible. Jesus is never called the "periklutos" in the Bible (the word
appears nowhere in the Bible) so it is grossly unlikely that he would
have said "He will give you another praised one" when he never used
that title for himself. Worse still, as the Muslims allege that he
actually foretold the coming of Muhammad by mentioning his name, the
sentence in that case would have read "He will give you another
Muhammad". The further the Muslims try to press the point, the more
absurd it tends to become.
John 16.12-13 makes it clear that the word "paracletos" is obviously
the correct one. The text reads: "I have yet many things to say to
you, but you cannot bear them now. When the Spirit of Truth comes, he
will guide you into all the truth". In other words, I have been your
Comforter, your paracletos, and have many things to tell you, but I
send the Spirit of Truth to you, another Comforter, another
In 1 John 2.1 we read that Christians have an "advocate" with the
Father, "Jesus Christ the Righteous", and the word translated
"advocate" is paracletos in the Greek. So Jesus is our paracletos, our
Comforter and advocate with the Father, and he promised to give his
disciples another Comforter. It is therefore logical to find that
Jesus promised another paracletos when he himself was described as the
paracletos of his followers, but it is illogical to suggest that he
would speak of "another periklutos" when the word was never used to
describe him in the first place.
3. "To be with you FOREVER".
When Muhammad came he did not stay with his people forever but died in
632 AD and his tomb is in Medina where his body has lain for over 1300
years. Nevertheless Jesus said that the Comforter, once he had come,
would never leave his disciples, but would be with them forever.
4. "The Spirit of Truth whom the world CANNOT receive".
The Qur'an says that Muhammad came as a universal messenger to men
(Surah 34.28). If so, Jesus was not referring to Muhammad for he said
that the world cannot receive the Comforter, the Spirit of Truth.
5. "You KNOW him".
It is quite obvious from this statement that the disciples knew the
Spirit of Truth. As Muhammad was only born more than five hundred
years later, it certainly could not be him. The next clause brings out
just how the disciples knew him. At this stage we can see quite
clearly that the Comforter is a spirit who was in the disciples'
6. "He dwells WITH you".
Where did the Comforter dwell with them? From various verses,
especially John 1.32, we can see that the Spirit was in Jesus himself
and so was with the disciples.
7. "He will be IN you".
Here the death-blow is dealt to the theory that Muhammad is the
Comforter, the Spirit of Truth. As the Spirit was in Jesus, so he
would be in the disciples as well. The Greek word here is "en" and
this means "right inside". So Jesus was in fact saying "he will be
right inside you".
8. The last reason is really a re-emphasis of the first one. Do you
notice how often Jesus addresses his own disciples when he speaks of
the sphere of influence of the Comforter? "You know him ... he dwells
with you ... he will be in you". Quite clearly the disciples were to
anticipate the coming of the Comforter as a spirit who would come to
them just after Jesus had left them. No other interpretation can
possibly be drawn from this text. Only wishful thinking makes the
Muslims allege that Muhammad was foretold by Jesus, but a practical
interpretation of the texts destroys this possibility.
Let us read how the Spirit came to Jesus: "The Holy Spirit descended
upon him in bodily form, as a dove" (Luke 3.22). We read that the
Spirit, the Comforter, came to the disciples in a similar way just
after the ascension of Jesus (as Jesus told them he would): "And there
appeared to them tongues as of fire, distributed and resting on them.
And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit" (Acts 2.3-4). He was
with the disciples in the person of Jesus while he was still with
them, and he was in the disciples from the day of Pentecost. We thus
see the prediction Jesus made in John 14.17 duly fulfilled in the
coming of the Holy Spirit.
Within only ten days after the ascension of Jesus, the disciples duly
received the Comforter as he was promised to them by Jesus. He had
told them to wait in Jerusalem until the Holy Spirit, the Comforter,
should come (Acts 1.4-8) as indeed he did while they were all together
praying for his advent in the city. Muhammad is right out of this
Moving on now to John 16.7 (quoted earlier), the whole meaning of this
verse also becomes clear from the statement of Jesus, "I have many
things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now" (John 16.12).
Jesus also said: "It is to your advantage that I go away" (John 16.7).
The disciples could not bear his teaching now because they were
ordinary men devoid of power to comprehend or apply what he said. The
Spirit of Truth was indeed in Jesus, but was not yet in his disciples,
so they were unable to follow the spiritual elements in his teaching.
But after the ascension they received the Spirit and could now
communicate and understand his teaching because the Spirit of Truth
was in them as well. That is why Jesus said "it is to your advantage
that I go away". This is made equally clear elsewhere in the Bible:
What no eye has seen, nor ear heard, nor the heart of man
conceived, what God has prepared for those who love him, God has
revealed to us through the Spirit. For what person knows a man's
thoughts except the spirit of the man which is in him? So no one
comprehends the thoughts of God except the Spirit of God. Now we have
received not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is from
God, that we might understand the gifts bestowed on us by God.
1 Corinthians 2.9-13.
Paul makes it plain that the Spirit had already been given and if it
had not, it could not have been to any advantage to the disciples to
be without Jesus once he had ascended to heaven.
So it is abundantly proved that Muhammad is not the Spirit of Truth,
the Comforter, whose coming Jesus foretold. Who is the Comforter then?
He is the very Spirit of the living God as can be seen from some of
the quotations already given. On the day when the Comforter duly came
upon the disciples, his coming was accompanied by a tremendous sound,
"like the rush of a mighty wind" (Acts 2.2). When the Jews heard this,
they rushed together to see what was happening. Peter declared to them
"This is what was spoken by the prophet Joel: 'And in the last
days it shall be, God declares, that I will pour out my Spirit on all
The Comforter, the Spirit of God, had come down on the disciples as
Jesus had promised and was to be given to believing Christian men and
women from every nation under the sun. But notice how Peter linked the
coming of the Spirit with the ascension of Christ:
"This Jesus God raised up and of that we are all witnesses. Being
therefore exacted at the right hand of God, and having received from
the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he has poured out this
which you see and hear".
Clearly the coming of the Comforter was inseparably linked to the
risen, ascended glory of Jesus in the highest place that heaven
affords. The Comforter is also called "the Spirit of Christ" (Romans
8. 9) and the reason is plain from what Jesus said:
1. "He will glorify me" (John 16.14).
2. "He will bear witness to me" (John 15.26).
3. "He will convince the world concerning sin because they do not
believe in me" (John 16. 8-9).
4. "He will take what is mine and declare it to you" (John 16.14).
5. "He will bring to your remembrance all that I have said to
you" (John 14.26).
Quite obviously the great work of the Comforter is to bring people to
Jesus, to make them see him as Saviour and Lord, and to draw them to
him. The Comforter was given so that the glory of Jesus might be
revealed to men and in men. A beautiful example of this is given by
the Apostle John:
His disciples did not understand this at first; but when Jesus was
glorified, then they remembered that this had been written of him and
done to him.
Without the Spirit, they had no understanding, but when they received
the Spirit after Jesus was glorified, then they remembered as Jesus
said they would. John illustrates this in this passage as well:
On the last day of the feast, the great day, Jesus stood up and
proclaimed, 'If any one thirst, let him come to me and drink. He who
believes in me, as the scripture has said, out of his heart will flow
rivers of living water'. Now this he said about the Spirit, which
those who believed in him were to receive; for as yet the Spirit had
not been given, because Jesus was not yet glorified.
As soon as Jesus was glorified the Spirit was given so that the glory
of Jesus in heaven might become real to men here on earth. As Peter
said (Acts 2.33), once Jesus was exalted at the right hand of God, the
Spirit was freely given to his disciples.
Again Peter said, "The God of our fathers glorified Jesus" (Acts
3.13). We cannot see or comprehend this glory of Jesus here on earth
(and Jesus himself said, "I do not receive glory from men" John 5.41),
but he sent the Spirit so that we might behold this glory by the eye
of faith. As Jesus himself said to his disciples of the Spirit:
"He will glorify me, for he will take what is mine and declare it
to you. All that the Father has is mine, therefore I said that he will
take what is mine and declare it to you".
The Holy Spirit is the Spirit of God and he is given to all true
believers so that the glory of Jesus in heaven may become real to men
on earth. John makes it plain how a man receives the Holy Spirit:
Now this he spoke about the Spirit, which those who BELIEVED in
him were to receive.
To receive the Comforter, the Spirit of God, one must believe in Jesus
and surrender body and soul to him. Without the Spirit no one sees or
believes in the glory of Christ, but for those who are his true
followers and who are sanctified by the Holy Spirit (1 Peter 1.2),
Without having seen him, you love him, though you do not now see
him, you believe in him and rejoice with unutterable and exalted joy.
As the outcome of your faith you obtain the salvation of your souls.
1 Peter 1.8-9.
The distinction between those who have received the Spirit and those
who have not, those who have beheld the glory of Christ and those who
have not, comes out very clearly as Peter continues to speak to his
To you therefore who believe, he is precious, but for those who do
not believe, 'The very stone which the builders rejected has become
the head of the corner'.
1 Peter 2.7
The Bible says much about the Comforter, the Spirit of Truth, but the
great and most handsome work of the Spirit is summed up in Jesus'
"HE WILL GLORIFY ME".
Although the Spirit had been at work in the world before the advent of
Jesus Christ, and had indeed filled many of the great prophets and men
of old with a longing for the coming Christ, he only finally united
himself to men, and men to God, and indeed true believers to one
another after the resurrection and ascension of Christ to heaven.
Jesus Christ spoke to his OWN disciples of the coming of the Comforter
because the Spirit was sent down to comfort and regenerate all true
believers in Jesus. This is one of the most significant and consistent
elements of the teaching of Jesus about the Comforter. The prime
purpose of the coming of the Comforter - immediately after the
ascension of Jesus - was to draw men to him so that those who are
influenced by the work of the Comforter will therefore become
followers of Jesus. It is further evidence against the theory that
Muhammad was the Comforter for, whereas the Comforter would not speak
of himself but only of Jesus, Muhammad drew attention away from Jesus
to himself, describing himself as the ultimate apostle of God to be
followed and obeyed. The Comforter was never to do a thing like this.
Jesus made it plain that the Comforter would draw the attention and
faith of all men to himself and would glorify him before the eyes of
faith of true believers as the Lord of glory in heaven.
After Jesus Christ had ascended to heaven to be glorified at the right
hand of God above all the angels and departed saints, the Comforter
came immediately upon his disciples to make this glory real to them
and through them to spread it all over the world. For Jesus Christ is
the very image of the Father's glory. In him are all things united,
whether in heaven or on earth. He is the climax of God's plan for the
fulness of time. He is the beginning and the end of all God's gracious
work in all ages - for all the salvation and glory that God has
prepared for those who love him are vested in Jesus.
The Comforter came to give us a foretaste of this glory. He came to
make the resplendent glory of Jesus real to those who follow him. As
Moses encouraged his people to look forward to the prophet who would
be like him, who would mediate a new covenant to save all who truly
believe, so the Comforter encourages Christ's followers in this age to
look up to the risen, ascended, Lord Jesus Christ who sits on the
throne of God in eternal glory above the heavens.
Far from Muhammad being foretold in the Bible, every prophecy, every
agent of God, every true prophet and spirit, looks upward towards the
radiance of the Father's glory, the one who sits upon the throne, the
Lord Jesus Christ.
Jesus Christ ascended to heaven - God took him to himself. For Jesus
alone is the Redeemer of the world. He alone is able, as a man, to
enter the holy presence of the Father's throne and fill it with his
own glorious majesty. So likewise he is able to reconcile sinful men
to God and will one day be seen again in all his splendour as he comes
to call his own - those who eagerly awaited his coming before his time
and all those who since his sojourn on this earth look forward to his
return from heaven - to be with him where he is to behold with awe the
glory which the Father gave him in his love for him before the
foundation of the world.
Moses rejoiced to see his day when speaking of the prophet to come.
The Comforter today still rejoices to reveal his glory and majesty to
those in whom he dwells. The angels and departed saints await with
longing for the day when he shall be revealed to all the universe in
all his magnificence - when all men shall be raised from the dead to
see the Son of man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great
glory, a day when the Comforter's work will be finally completed, a
day when every knee shall bow and every tongue confess that it is
Jesus Christ who is Lord - to the everlasting glory of God the Father
BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS:
Badawi, Dr J - Muhammad in the Bible. (Islamic Information Foundation,
Halifax, Canada, 1982).
Dawud, Prof A - Muhammad in the Bible. (Angkatan Nahdhatul- Islam
Bersatu, Singapore, 1978).
Deedat, A H - Muhammad in the Old and the New Testaments. (Uthmania
Islamic Service Centre, Johannesburg, South Africa. n.d.)
Deedat, A H - Muhammad Successor to Jesus Christ as portrayed in the
Old and New Testaments. (Muslim Brotherhood Aid Services, Johannesburg
South Africa n.d.)
Deedat, A H - What the Bible says about Muhammad. (Islamic Propagation
Centre, Durban, South Africa, 1976)
Durrani, Dr M H - Muhammad - The Biblical Prophet. (International
Islamic Publishers, Karachi, Pakistan, 1980).
Gilchrist, J D - The Prophet after Moses. (Jesus to the Muslims,
Benoni, South Africa, 1976).
Gilchrist, J D - The Successor to Christ. (Jesus to the Muslims,
Benoni, South Africa, 1975).
Hamid, S M A - Evidence of the Bible about Mohammad. (Karachi,
Jamiat, U N - The Prophet Muhammad in the Bible. (Jamiat Ulema Natal,
Wasbank, South Africa, n.d.)
Kaldani D B - Mohammad in the Bible. (Abbas Manzil Library, Allahabad,
Lee, F N - Muhammad in the Bible? (Unpublished M.Th. thesis,
Stellenbosch, South Africa, 1964).
S G Mission - The Prophet like unto Moses. (Scripture Gift Mission,
London, England, 1951).
Shafaat, Dr A - Islam and its Prophet: A Fulfilment of Biblical
Prophecies. (Nur Al Islam Foundation, Ville St Laurent, Canada, 1984).
Vidyarthy, A H - Muhammad in World Scriptures. (Volume 2, Ahmadiyya
Anjuman Ishaat-l-lslam, Lahore, Pakistan, 1968).
Y.M.M.A. - Do you know? The Prophet Muhammad is prophesied in the Holy
Bible! (Young Men's Muslim Association. Johannesburg, South Africa,
ARTICLES IN OTHER BOOKS:
Niazi, K - The Bible and the last Prophet. (The Mirror of Trinity, S M
Ashrai', Lahorc, Pakistan, 1975).
Pfander, C G - Is the Mission of Mohammad foretold in the Old or New
Testaments? Mizanul Haqq - the Balance of Truth, Church Missionary
House, London, England, 1867).
Robson, J - Does the Bible speak of Muhammad? (The Muslim World, Vol.
25, p. 17).
Smith, P - Did Jesus Foretell Ahmed? (The Muslim World, Vol. 12, p.
Tisdall, W St C - Does the Bible Contain Prophecies concerning
Muhammad? (Mizanul Haqq - The Balance of Truth, Revised Edition,
Religious Tract Society, London, England, 1910).
LECTURES ON TAPE:
Deedat, A H - Muhammad the Natural Successor to Christ. (Durban City
Hall, Durban, South Africa, 1975)