Project MKULTRA



Project MKULTRA
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Declassified MKULTRA documentsProject MK-ULTRA, or MKULTRA, was the
code name for a covert CIA mind-control and chemical interrogation
research program, run by the Office of Scientific Intelligence, that
began in the early 1950s and continued at least through the late 1960s.
[1][2][3] There is much published evidence that the project involved
the surreptitious use of many types of drugs, as well as other
methodology, to manipulate individual mental states and to alter brain
function.[4]

Project MK-ULTRA was first brought to wide public attention in 1975 by
the U.S. Congress, through investigations by the Church Committee, and
by a presidential commission known as the Rockefeller Commission.
Investigative efforts were hampered by the fact that CIA Director
Richard Helms ordered all MK-ULTRA files destroyed in 1973; the Church
Committee and Rockefeller Commission investigations relied on the
sworn testimony of direct participants and on the relatively small
number of documents that survived Helms' destruction order. [5]

Although the CIA insists that MK-ULTRA-type experiments have been
abandoned, 14-year CIA veteran Victor Marchetti has stated in various
interviews that the CIA routinely conducts disinformation campaigns
and that CIA mind control research continued. In a 1977 interview,
Marchetti specifically called the CIA claim that MK-ULTRA was
abandoned a 'cover story.'.[6][7]

On the Senate floor in 1977, Senator Ted Kennedy said:

The Deputy Director of the CIA revealed that over thirty universities
and institutions were involved in an 'extensive testing and
experimentation' program which included covert drug tests on unwitting
citizens 'at all social levels, high and low, native Americans and
foreign.' Several of these tests involved the administration of LSD to
'unwitting subjects in social situations.' At least one death, that of
Dr. [Frank] Olson, resulted from these activities. The Agency itself
acknowledged that these tests made little scientific sense. The agents
doing the monitoring were not qualified scientific observers.[8]

Contents
1 Title and origins
2 Aims
3 Budget
4 Experiments
4.1 Drugs
4.1.1 LSD
4.1.2 Other drugs
4.2 Hypnosis
4.3 Canadian experiments
5 Revelation
6 U.S. General Accounting Office Report
7 Deaths
8 Famous subjects
9 Conspiracy theories
10 Popular culture
11 See also
12 Sources
12.1 References
12.2 Government Documents
12.3 Articles
12.4 Books
13 External links



Title and origins
This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2008)

Dr. Sidney Gottlieb approved of an MKULTRA subproject on LSD in this
June 9, 1953 letter.The project's intentionally oblique CIA cryptonym
is made up of the digraph MK, meaning that the project was sponsored
by the agency's Technical Services Division, followed by the arbitrary
dictionary word ULTRA. Other related cryptonyms include MK-NAOMI and
MK-DELTA.

A precursor of the MK-ULTRA program began in 1945 when the Joint
Intelligence Objectives Agency was established and given direct
responsibility for Operation Paperclip. Operation Paperclip was a
program to recruit former Nazi spies, scientists and experts in
torture and brainwashing, some of whom had just been identified and
prosecuted as war criminals during the Nuremberg Trials.

Several secret U.S. government projects grew out of Operation
Paperclip. These projects included Project CHATTER (established 1947),
and Project BLUEBIRD (established 1950), which was later renamed to
Project ARTICHOKE in 1951. Their purpose was to study mind-control,
interrogation, behavior modification and related topics.

Headed by Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, the MK-ULTRA project was started on the
order of CIA director Allen Dulles on April 13, 1953,[9] largely in
response to Soviet, Chinese, and North Korean use of mind-control
techniques on U.S. prisoners of war in Korea.[10] The CIA wanted to
use similar methods on their own captives. The CIA was also interested
in being able to manipulate foreign leaders with such techniques,[11]
and would later invent several schemes to drug Fidel Castro.

Experiments were often conducted without the subjects' knowledge or
consent.[12] In some cases, academic researchers being funded through
grants from CIA front organizations were unaware that their work was
being used for these purposes.[13]

In 1964, the project was renamed MK-SEARCH. The project attempted to
produce a perfect truth drug for use in interrogating suspected Soviet
spies during the Cold War, and generally to explore any other
possibilities of mind control.

An MK-ULTRA program tagged "Operation Teapot" involved the testing of
pregnant women with radiation, among other things. Also under this
program, U.S. Army soldiers were dosed with LSD to study the effects
of panic.[citation needed]

Another MK-ULTRA effort, Subproject 54, was the Navy's top secret
"Perfect Concussion" program, which used sub aural frequency blasts to
erase memory. During this program LSD's corollary effect on controlled
and channeled mass panic was discovered. [14]

MK-ULTRA head Sidney Gottlieb was involved with both Operation Teapot
and Subproject 54. The U.S. government officially denied involvement
until 1995 when an official apology was issued to the pregnant women
and to the affected U.S. Army soldiers. However no apologies were
offered to the affected U.S. Navy sailors or to a group of Oregon
prison inmates, whose testicles were irradiated without their
knowledge.[citation needed] Compensation for medical treatment
resulting from these experiments has been disputed and remains tied up
in arbitration more than 40 years after the fact. Since 1995, most of
the associated files have been reclassified as Top Secret.

Because most MK-ULTRA records were deliberately destroyed in 1973 by
order of then CIA Director Richard Helms, it has been difficult, if
not impossible, for investigators to gain a complete understanding of
the more than 150 individually funded research sub-projects sponsored
by MK Ultra and related CIA programs.[15]


Aims
The Agency poured millions of dollars into studies probing dozens of
methods of influencing and controlling the mind. One 1955 MK-ULTRA
document gives an indication of the size and range of the effort; this
document refers to the study of an assortment of mind-altering
substances described as follows:[16]

Substances which will promote illogical thinking and impulsiveness to
the point where the recipient would be discredited in public.
Substances which increase the efficiency of mentation and perception.
Materials which will prevent or counteract the intoxicating effect of
alcohol.
Materials which will promote the intoxicating effect of alcohol.
Materials which will produce the signs and symptoms of recognized
diseases in a reversible way so that they may be used for malingering,
etc.
Materials which will render the induction of hypnosis easier or
otherwise enhance its usefulness.
Substances which will enhance the ability of individuals to withstand
privation, torture and coercion during interrogation and so-called
"brain-washing".
Materials and physical methods which will produce amnesia for events
preceding and during their use.
Physical methods of producing shock and confusion over extended
periods of time and capable of surreptitious use.
Substances which produce physical disablement such as paralysis of the
legs, acute anemia, etc.
Substances which will produce "pure" euphoria with no subsequent let-
down.
Substances which alter personality structure in such a way that the
tendency of the recipient to become dependent upon another person is
enhanced.
A material which will cause mental confusion of such a type that the
individual under its influence will find it difficult to maintain a
fabrication under questioning.
Substances which will lower the ambition and general working
efficiency of men when administered in undetectable amounts.
Substances which promote weakness or distortion of the eyesight or
hearing faculties, preferably without permanent effects.
A knockout pill which can surreptitiously be administered in drinks,
food, cigarettes, as an aerosol, etc., which will be safe to use,
provide a maximum of amnesia, and be suitable for use by agent types
on an ad hoc basis.
A material which can be surreptitiously administered by the above
routes and which in very small amounts will make it impossible for a
man to perform any physical activity whatsoever.
Historians have learned that creating a "Manchurian Candidate" subject
through "mind control" techniques was undoubtedly a goal of MK-ULTRA
and related CIA projects.[17] However, there is no conclusive evidence
the CIA actually succeeded in controlling a person's actions through
mind control.


Budget
A secretive arrangement granted a percentage of the CIA budget. The MK-
ULTRA director was granted six percent of the CIA operating budget in
1953, without oversight or accounting.[18]

An estimated US$10m or more were spent[19].


Experiments
CIA documents suggest that "chemical, biological and radiological"
means were investigated for the purpose of mind control as part of MK-
ULTRA.[20]


Drugs

LSD
Early efforts focused on LSD, which later came to dominate many of MK-
ULTRA's programs.

Experiments included administering LSD to CIA employees, military
personnel, doctors, other government agents, prostitutes, mentally ill
patients, and members of the general public in order to study their
reactions. LSD and other drugs were usually administered without the
subject's knowledge and informed consent, a violation of the Nuremberg
Code that the U.S. agreed to follow after World War II.

Efforts to "recruit" subjects were often illegal, even discounting the
fact that drugs were being administered (though actual use of LSD, for
example, was legal in the United States until October 6, 1966). In
Operation Midnight Climax, the CIA set up several brothels to obtain a
selection of men who would be too embarrassed to talk about the
events. The men were dosed with LSD, and the brothels were equipped
with one-way mirrors and the "sessions" were filmed for later viewing
and study.[21]

Some subjects' participation was consensual, and in many of these
cases, the subjects appeared to be singled out for even more extreme
experiments. In one case, volunteers were given LSD for 77 consecutive
days.[22]

LSD was eventually dismissed by MK-ULTRA's researchers as too
unpredictable in its results.[1] Although useful information was
sometimes obtained through questioning subjects on LSD, not uncommonly
the most marked effect would be the subject's absolute and utter
certainty that they were able to withstand any form of interrogation
attempt, even physical torture.


Other drugs
Another technique investigated was connecting a barbiturate IV into
one arm and an amphetamine IV into the other.[23] The barbiturates
were released into the subject first, and as soon as the subject began
to fall asleep, the amphetamines were released. The subject would
begin babbling incoherently at this point, and it was sometimes
possible to ask questions and get useful answers.

Other experiments involved heroin, morphine, temazepam (used under
code name MK-SEARCH), mescaline, psilocybin, scopolamine, marijuana,
alcohol, and sodium pentothal.[24]


Hypnosis
Declassified MK-ULTRA documents indicate hypnosis was studied in the
early 1950s. Experimental goals included: the creation of
"hypnotically induced anxieties," "hypnotically increasing ability to
learn and recall complex written matter," studying hypnosis and
polygraph examinations, "hypnotically increasing ability to observe
and recall complex arrangements of physical objects," and studying
"relationship of personality to susceptibility to hypnosis."[25]


Canadian experiments
The experiments were exported to Canada when the CIA recruited
Scottish physician Donald Ewen Cameron, creator of the "psychic
driving" concept, which the CIA found particularly interesting.
Cameron had been hoping to correct schizophrenia by erasing existing
memories and completely rebuilding, or programming the psyche. He
commuted from Albany, New York to Montreal every week to work at the
Allan Memorial Institute of McGill University and was paid $69,000
from 1957 to 1964 to carry out MKULTRA experiments there. In addition
to LSD, Cameron also experimented with various paralytic drugs as well
as electroconvulsive therapy at thirty to forty times the normal
power. His "driving" experiments consisted of putting subjects into
drug-induced coma for weeks at a time (up to three months in one case)
while playing tape loops of noise or simple repetitive statements. His
experiments were typically carried out on patients who had entered the
institute for minor problems such as anxiety disorders and postpartum
depression, many of whom suffered permanently from his actions.[26]
His treatments resulted in victims' incontinence, amnesia, forgetting
how to talk, forgetting their parents, and thinking their
interrogators were their parents.[27] His work was inspired and
paralleled by the British psychiatrist Dr William Sargant at St
Thomas' Hospital, London, and Belmont Hospital, Surrey, who also
experimented extensively and very damagingly on his patients without
their consent and was similarly involved with the Intelligence
Services.[citation needed] Dr. Cameron and Dr. Sargant are the only
two identified Canadian experimenters, but the MKULTRA file makes
reference to many other unnamed physicians who were recruited by the
CIA and CSIS.[dubious – discuss]

It was during this era that Cameron became known worldwide as the
first chairman of the World Psychiatric Association as well as
president of the American and Canadian psychiatric associations.
Cameron had also been a member of the Nuremberg medical tribunal only
a decade earlier.[28]


Revelation
In 1973, CIA Director Richard Helms ordered all MK-ULTRA files
destroyed. Pursuant to this order, most CIA documents regarding the
project were destroyed, making a full investigation of MK-ULTRA all
but impossible.

In December 1974, The New York Times reported that the CIA had
conducted illegal domestic activities, including experiments on U.S.
citizens, during the 1960s. That report prompted investigations by the
U.S. Congress, in the form of the Church Committee, and by a
presidential commission known as the Rockefeller Commission that
looked into domestic activities of the CIA, the FBI, and intelligence-
related agencies of the military.

In the summer of 1975, congressional Church Committee reports and the
presidential Rockefeller Commission report revealed to the public for
the first time that the CIA and the Department of Defense had
conducted experiments on both unwitting and cognizant human subjects
as part of an extensive program to influence and control human
behavior through the use of psychoactive drugs such as LSD and
mescaline and other chemical, biological, and psychological means.
They also revealed that at least one subject had died after
administration of LSD.

The congressional committee investigating the CIA research, chaired by
Senator Frank Church, concluded that "[p]rior consent was obviously
not obtained from any of the subjects". The committee noted that the
"experiments sponsored by these researchers ... call into question the
decision by the agencies not to fix guidelines for experiments."

Following the recommendations of the Church Committee, President
Gerald Ford in 1976 issued the first Executive Order on Intelligence
Activities which, among other things, prohibited "experimentation with
drugs on human subjects, except with the informed consent, in writing
and witnessed by a disinterested party, of each such human subject"
and in accordance with the guidelines issued by the National
Commission. Subsequent orders by Presidents Carter and Reagan expanded
the directive to apply to any human experimentation.

On the heels of the revelations about CIA experiments, similar stories
surfaced regarding U.S. Army experiments. In 1975 the Secretary of the
Army instructed the Army Inspector General to conduct an
investigation. Among the findings of the Inspector General was the
existence of a 1953 memorandum penned by then Secretary of Defense
Charles Erwin Wilson. Documents show that the CIA participated in at
least two of Department of Defense committees during 1952. These
committee findings led to the issuance of the "Wilson Memo," which
mandated--in accord with Nuremberg Code protocols--that only
volunteers be used for experimental operations conducted in the U.S.
armed forces. [2] In response to the Inspector General's
investigation, the Wilson Memo was declassified in August 1975.

With regard to drug testing within the Army, the Inspector General
found that "the evidence clearly reflected that every possible medical
consideration was observed by the professional investigators at the
Medical Research Laboratories." However the Inspector General also
found that the mandated requirements of Wilson's 1953 memorandum had
been only partially adhered to; he concluded that the "volunteers were
not fully informed, as required, prior to their participation; and the
methods of procuring their services, in many cases, appeared not to
have been in accord with the intent of Department of the Army policies
governing use of volunteers in research."

Other branches of the U.S. armed forces, the Air Force for example,
were found not to have adhered to Wilson Memo stipulations regarding
voluntary drug testing.

In Canada, the issue took much longer to surface, becoming widely
known in 1984 on a CBC news show, The Fifth Estate. It was learned
that not only had the CIA funded Dr. Cameron's efforts, but perhaps
even more shockingly, the Canadian government was fully aware of this,
and had later provided another $500,000 in funding to continue the
experiments. This revelation largely derailed efforts by the victims
to sue the CIA as their U.S. counterparts had, and the Canadian
government eventually settled out of court for $100,000 to each of the
127 victims.


U.S. General Accounting Office Report
The U.S. General Accounting Office issued a report on September 28,
1994, which stated that between 1940 and 1974, DOD and other national
security agencies studied thousands of human subjects in tests and
experiments involving hazardous substances.

The quote from the study:

.... Working with the CIA, the Department of Defense gave
hallucinogenic drugs to thousands of "volunteer" soldiers in the
1950's and 1960's. In addition to LSD, the Army also tested
quinuclidinyl benzilate, a hallucinogen code-named BZ. (Note 37) Many
of these tests were conducted under the so-called MKULTRA program,
established to counter perceived Soviet and Chinese advances in
brainwashing techniques. Between 1953 and 1964, the program consisted
of 149 projects involving drug testing and other studies on unwitting
human subjects...[29]


Deaths
Harold Blauer, a professional tennis player in New York City, died as
a result of a secret Army experiment involving MDA.[30]

Frank Olson, a United States Army biochemist and biological weapons
researcher, was given LSD without his knowledge or consent in 1953 as
part of a CIA experiment, and committed suicide a week later following
a severe psychotic episode. A CIA doctor assigned to monitor Olson's
recovery claimed to be asleep in another bed in a New York City hotel
room when Olson jumped through the window to fall ten stories to his
death.[31]

Olson's son disputes this version of events, and maintains that his
father was murdered due to his knowledge of the often-lethal
interrogation techniques employed by the CIA in Europe, used on Cold
War prisoners. Frank Olson's body was exhumed in 1994, and cranial
injuries indicated Olson had been knocked unconscious before exiting
the window.[32]

The CIA's own internal investigation, by contrast, claimed Gottlieb
had conducted the experiment with Olson's prior knowledge, although
neither Olson nor the other men taking part in the experiment were
informed as to the exact nature of the drug until some 20 minutes
after its ingestion. The report further suggested that Gottlieb was
nonetheless due a reprimand, as he had failed to take into account
Olsen's already-diagnosed suicidal tendencies, which might well have
been exacerbated by the LSD.[31][33]


Famous subjects
Considerable evidence supports the contention that Theodore Kaczynski
participated in CIA-sponsored MK-ULTRA experiments conducted at
Harvard University by Henry Murray, a professor in Social Relations,
from the fall of 1959 through the spring of 1962. Kaczynski was
subjected to "a disturbing and what would now be seen as an ethically
indefensible experiment on twenty-two undergraduates." Kaczynski was a
precocious, though impressionable, sixteen-year-old when he began his
participation; his assigned code name was "Lawful." He emerged,
decades later, as the Unabomber and has been sentenced to life in
prison without the possibility of parole. [34] [35]

Merry Prankster Ken Kesey, author of One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest,
volunteered for MK-ULTRA experiments while he was a student at
Stanford University. Kesey's ingestion of LSD during these experiments
led directly to his widespread promotion of the drug and the
subsequent development of hippie culture.

Candy Jones, American fashion model and radio host, claimed to have
been a victim of mind control in the '60s, but her account has not
been verified.

Infamous Irish mob boss, James "Whitey" Bulger volunteered for testing
while in prison.[3]


Conspiracy theories
MK-ULTRA plays a part in many conspiracy theories given its nature and
the destruction of most records. Some claim the MK-ULTRA project was
linked with the assassination of Robert F. Kennedy. They have argued
that there is evidence that the assassin, Sirhan Sirhan, had been
subjected to mind control, though such ideas are generally dismissed
due to a lack of supporting evidence. Recently, these views have
become more widespread after the evidence cited by Sirhan's most
recent lawyer Lawrence Teeter, in the June 11, 2003 Interview with
Sirhan's attorney Lawrence Teeter on KPFA 94.1 / Guns & Butter show.

After Leo Ryan was murdered at Jonestown, his children filed a lawsuit
claiming that the CIA had been operating Jonestown as part of their MK-
ULTRA program, and that Richard Dwyer, the Deputy Chief of Mission
from the US Embassy who had organized the trip on Ryan's behalf, was a
CIA agent. The lawsuit was dismissed.

The majority of U.S. government records concerning Jonestown remain
sealed to this day, per the National Archives policy of sealing
records for 75 years.[4]

Some, such as Cathy O'Brien, claim that MK-ULTRA involved the
abduction and/or brainwashing of children as an aspect of satanic
ritual abuse[5]. Most research into the occurrence has found no
evidence to support such claims[6].


Popular culture
MKULTRA is referenced in the plots of The Ambler Warning by Robert
Ludlum, The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test by Tom Wolfe, Firestarter by
Stephen King, Just a Couple of Days by Tony Vigorito, Murder in the
CIA by Margaret Truman, The Manchurian Candidate by Richard Condon,
The Telling of Lies by Timothy Findley; and The Watchmen by John
Altman (author); the films Conspiracy Theory, The Good Shepherd, and
Jacob's Ladder; the television series Angel, The Lone Gunmen, Numb3rs,
Bones, and The X-Files; the games Conspiracy X and The Suffering:
Prison is Hell; the character Deathstroke the Terminator in the Teen
Titans by DC Comics.
The bands mk Ultra and MK-ULTRA took their names from these projects.
MKULTRA is also referenced by such musical artists as Black Rebel
Motorcycle Club, Fatboy Slim, Green Magnet School, Immortal Technique,
Canibus, The Manic Street Preachers, Muse, The Orb, Sirius Isness,
Lustmord side project Terror Against Terror, and Tokyo Police Club.
MKULTRA also provides a name for a move by professional wrestler
Sterling James Keenan and a strain of medical marijuana.

See also
Brainwashing
CIA cryptonyms
CIA operations
Human radiation experiments
Louis Jolyon West
Macy Conferences
MKDELTA
MKNAOMI
Operation Paperclip
Project ARTICHOKE
Project BLUEBIRD
Project CHATTER
Sidney Gottlieb
United States v. Stanley, US Supreme Court case
William Sargant


Sources

References
^ Science, Technology and the CIA
^ "Chapter 3, part 4: Supreme Court Dissents Invoke the Nuremberg
Code: CIA and DOD Human Subjects Research Scandals". Advisory
Committee on Human Radiation Experiments Final Report. Retrieved on
August 24, 2005. "The CIA program, known principally by the codename
MKULTRA, began in 1950"
^ U.S. Congress: The Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations
with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Foreign and Military
Intelligence (Church Committee report), report no. 94-755, 94th Cong.,
2d Sess. (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1976); p. 392 "According to the CIA,
the project [MKULTRA] was decreased significantly each budget year
until its complete termination in the late 1960s."
^ The referenced sentence was originally sourced from here; it is not
obvious what the context of this reference was.
^ "An Interview with Richard Helms", CIA. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
^ http://www.skepticfiles.org/socialis/marcheti.htm, retrieved 22
August 2007
^ John Marks interview with Victor Marchetti, quoted in Martin Cannon,
"Mind Control and the American Government", Lobster Magazine 23, 1992
^ This quote is from the Opening Remarks by Senator Ted Kennedy during
the August 3, 1977 meeting of the U.S. Senate Select Committee On
Intelligence, and Subcommittee On Health And Scientific Research of
the Committee On Human Resources; online version from the Schaffer
Library of Drug Policy, a unofficial website.
^ Church Committee; p. 390 "MKULTRA was approved by the DCI[Director
of Central Intelligence] on April 13, 1953"
^ "Chapter 3, part 4: Supreme Court Dissents Invoke the Nuremberg
Code: CIA and DOD Human Subjects Research Scandals". Advisory
Committee on Human Radiation Experiments Final Report. Retrieved on
August 24, 2005. "MKULTRA, began in 1950 and was motivated largely in
response to alleged Soviet, Chinese, and North Korean uses of mind-
control techniques on U.S. prisoners of war in Korea."
^ Church Committee; p. 391 "A special procedure, designated MKDELTA,
was established to govern the use of MKULTRA materials abroad. Such
materials were used on a number of occasions."
^ Church Committee; "The congressional committee investigating the CIA
research, chaired by Senator Frank Church, concluded that '[p]rior
consent was obviously not obtained from any of the subjects.'"
^ Price, David (June, 2007). "Buying a Piece of Anthropology: Human
Ecology and unwitting anthropological research for the CIA" (PDF).
Anthropology Today 23 (3): 3–13. Retrieved on 2008-04-13.
^ http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/History/e1950/mkultra/Hearing05.htm,
retrieved 25 April 2008
^ "Chapter 3, part 4: Supreme Court Dissents Invoke the Nuremberg
Code: CIA and DOD Human Subjects Research Scandals". Advisory
Committee on Human Radiation Experiments Final Report. Retrieved on
August 24, 2005. (identical sentence) "Because most of the MKULTRA
records were deliberately destroyed in 1973 ... MK Ultra and the
related CIA programs."
^ "Senate MKULTRA Hearing: Appendix C--Documents Referring to
Subprojects, [page 167, in PDF document page numbering.]". Senate
Select Committee on Intelligence and Committee on Human Resources
(August 3, 1977). Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Ranelagh, John O'Beirne, The agency: the rise and decline of the
CIA, Simon and Schuster, 1986
^ Declassified
^ Mind Control and the Secret State
^ Declassified
^ Marks 1979: 106-107.
^ NPR Fresh Air. June 28, 2007 and Tim Weiner, The Legacy of Ashes:
The History of the CIA.
^ Marks 1979: pp 40-42.
^ Marks 1979: chapters 3 and 7.
^ Declassified
^ Marks 1979: pp 140-150.
^ Turbide, Diane (1997-04-21). "Dr. Cameron’s Casualties". Retrieved
on 2007-09-09.
^ Marks 1979: p 141.
^ Quote from "Is Military Research Hazardous to Veterans Health?
Lessons Spanning Half A Century", part F. HALLUCINOGENS 103rd
Congress, 2nd Session-S. Prt. 103-97; Staff Report prepared for the
committee on veterans' affairs December 8, 1994 John D. Rockefeller
IV, West Virginia, Chairman. Online copy provided by gulfweb.org,
which describes itself as "Serving the Gulf War Veteran Community
Worldwide Since 1994". (The same document is available from many other
(unofficial) sites, which may or may not be independent.)
^ Marks 1979: p 72n.
^ a b Marks 1979: chapter 5.
^ Jonson, Ron 2004
^ CIA Off Campus: Building the Movement Against Agency Recruitment and
Research
^ http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/2000/06/chase.htm, retrieved 10
March, 2008
^ CIA Shrinks and LSD

Government Documents
[7] U.S. Congress: The Select Committee to Study Governmental
Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Foreign and
Military Intelligence (Church Committee report), report no. 94-755,
94th Cong., 2d Sess. (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1976), 394.
A link to the first page on MKULTRA.
A link to the first page on Frank Olson.
[8] U.S. Senate: Joint Hearing before The Select Committee on
Intelligence and The Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of
the Committee on Human Resources, 95th Cong., 1st Sess. August 3,
1977
[9] U.S. Department of Energy: Supreme Court Dissents Invoke the
Nuremberg Code: CIA and DOD Human Subjects Research Scandals
[10] U.S. Department of Energy: The Records of Our Past
[11] Office of the Director of Central Intelligence (ODCI): Studies in
Intelligence - Fifteen DCIs' First 100 Day
Entire MKULTRA Document Archive
Entire MKULTRA Document Archive in PDF format

Articles
(sorted by date)

"Book Disputes CIA Chief on Mind-Control Efforts", by Bill Richards.
The Washington Post, January 29, 1979, page A2.
"The CIA's Attempt At Mind Control: Bad Trips?", The Washington Post,
February 15, 1979, page C2.
"Canadians Sue U.S. Over CIA Tests Of Behavior Modification Methods",
by Laura A. Kiernan. The Washington Post, December 12, 1980, page
A44.
"Tests Contradict U.S. Story of Man's Suicide; Family Suspects CIA
Killed Researcher", by Brian Mooar. The Washington Post, July 12,
1994, page B1.
"New Study Yields Little on Death of Biochemist Drugged by CIA", by
Brian Mooar. The Washington Post, November 29, 1994, page B3.
"Mk Ultra", by Mark Jenkins. The Washington Post, September 25, 1998,
page N15.
"CIA Official Sidney Gottlieb, 80, Dies", by Bart Barnes. The
Washington Post, March 11, 1999, page B5.
"The Coldest", by Ted Gup. The Washington Post, December 16, 2001,
page W9.
[12] "Government-linked 'suicide' probed", H.P. Albarelli Jr., 8
September 2002.
[13] "Operation Midnight Climax", by Lawrence Segel. The Medical Post,
September 17, 2002, Volume 38 Issue 33.
[14] "Woman awarded $100,000 for CIA-funded electroshock" - CBC news,
10 June 2004
[15] "Brainwash victims win cash claims" - Sunday Times, October 17,
2004

Books
Black, David (1998). Acid: The Secret History of LSD. London: Vision.
ISBN 1-901250-11-3. Later edition exists.
Bowart, W. H. (1978). Operation Mind Control: Our Secret Governments's
War Against Its Own People. New York: Dell. ISBN 0-440-16755-8.
Camper, Frank (1997). The Mk/Ultra Secret. Savannah, GA: Christopher
Scott Publishing. ISBN 1-889149-02-0.
Collins, Anne ([1988] 1998). In the Sleep Room: The Story of CIA
Brainwashing Experiments in Canada. Toronto: Key Porter Books. ISBN
1-55013-932-0. (Reprint edition.)
Douglass, Joseph (2002). Betrayed. 1st Books Library, 492. ISBN
140330131X.
Douglass, Joseph (1999). Red Cocaine: The Drugging of America and the
West. Edward Harle, 178. ISBN 1899798048.
Fahey, Todd (1996). Wisdom's Maw. Far Gone Books, 224. ISBN
0-965-18390-4.
Lee, Martin; Shlain, Bruce (1985). Acid Dreams: The Complete Social
History of LSD: The CIA, the Sixties, and Beyond. New York: Grove
Press. ISBN 0-8021-3062-3.
Marks, John (1979). The Search for the Manchurian Candidate. New York:
Times Books. ISBN 0-8129-0773-6.
McCoy, Alfred (2006). A Question of Torture: CIA Interrogation, from
the Cold War to the War on Terror. Metropolitan Books, 21 sqq.. ISBN
0-8050-8041-4.
Ranelagh, John (1988). The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA.
Sceptre, 208-210. ISBN 0-340-41230-5.
Ronson, Jon (2004). The Men Who Stare at Goats. Picador. ISBN
0-330-37548-2.
Stevens, Jay (1987). Storming Heaven: LSD and The American Dream. New
York: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3587-0.
Thomas, Gordon (1989). Journey into Madness: The True Story of Secret
CIA Mind Control and Medical Abuse. New York: Bantam. ISBN
0-553-28413-4.
Vankin, Jonathan; Whalin, John (2004). 80 Greatest Conspiracies of All
Time. Citadel Press. ISBN 0-8065-2531-2. Chapter 1, "CIAcid Drop".

External links
Inventory list of materials in the National Security Archive's
collection from John Marks' FOIA request results (which he utilized
while researching his book, The Search For The Manchurian Candidate:
The CIA and Mind Control, The Secret History of the Behavioral
Sciences, W. W. Norton, 1979; published as Norton paperback in 1991,
ISBN 0-393-30794-8).
The Frank Olson Project - a website created by Frank Olson's family to
explore the issues surrounding his death.
Declassified MKULTRA Project Documents (PDF)
Declassified MKULTRA Project Documents -Mirror Site-
Declassified MKULTRA Project Documents -Mirror Site- - the full 4-CD
collection of MKULTRA (and related) FOIA documents, online.
The Most Dangerous Game Downloadable 8 minute documentary by
independent filmmakers GNN
Results of the 1973 Church Committee Hearings, on CIA misdeeds, and
the 1984 Iran/Contra Hearings
XXVII. Testing and Use of Chemical and Biological Agents by the
Intelligence Community
U.S. Research on Hypnosis and Mind Control Begins
Amy Goodman Interviews Professor Alfred McCoy of the University of
Wisconsin-Madison. [16]
mindkiller.org's archive of MK-ULTRA declassified files 19900+ from
the Freedom of Information act requested in early 2003.
Interview with a Canadian victim of CIA and Canadian Government
Brainwashing, The Hour, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, January 9,
2007.
Erowid MKULTRA Vault.
Demon Technology Videos.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_MKULTRA";
Categories: Devices to alter consciousness | History of the United
States government | Central Intelligence Agency operations |
Psychedelic research | LSD | Medical research | Military history of
the United States | Military psychiatry | Mind control | 1953
establishments | Secret government programs | Human experimentation in
the United States | Investigations and hearings of the United States
Congress
Hidden categories: Articles needing additional references from April
2008 | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with
unsourced statements since May 2008 | Articles with unsourced
statements since August 2008 | All pages needing cleanup | Articles
with disputed
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Copyrights for details.)

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