- From: gaedhealic@xxxxxxxxx
- Date: 14 Feb 2007 13:59:01 -0800
"...upon the earth distress of nations, with perplexity; the sea and
the waves roaring; Men's hearts failing them for fear, and for looking
after those things which are coming on the earth..." Luke 21:25-26
Fact: Smoke, Ash and dust circle the globe in 1 to 2 weeks.
A large volcano blast near the west coast of the US, at Lat. 45 North,
Long 120 West, would pass over the East coast of the US in about 2
days, and arrive over Europe about 5 days. (The recent Mt. St Helens
eruption comes to mind.)
Laki (Icelandic: Lakagígar) 1783 Eruption
On 8 June 1783, a fissure with 130 craters opened explosively at first
because of the groundwater interacting with the rising basalt magma.
Over time, the eruptions became less explosive, with the style
changing from Plinian to Strombolian, and later to Hawaiian with high
rates of lava effusion.
The eruption, also known as the Skaftáreldar ("Skaftá river fires") or
Sîðueldur, produced about 15 km³ (3.6 mi³) of basalt lava, and the
total volume of tephra emitted was 0.91 km3. Lava fountains were
estimated to have reached heights of 800-1400 m (~2,600-4,600 ft).
In the United Kingdom, the summer of 1783 was known as the "sand-
summer" due to ash fallout. The gases were carried by the
convective eruption column to altitudes of about 15 km. The aerosols
built up caused a cooling effect in the Northern Hemisphere, possibly
by as much as 1 degree Celsius.
The eruption continued until 7 February 1784, but most of the lava was
erupted in the first five months. Grímsvötn volcano, from which the
Laki fissure extends, was also erupting at the time from 1783 until
1785. The outpouring of gases, including 8 million tons of fluorine
and 120 million tons of sulphur dioxide gave rise to what has since
become known as the "Laki haze" across Europe.
CONSEQUENCES IN EUROPE
An estimated 122 Tg (120 Million tons) of sulphur dioxide was emitted
into the atmosphere: approximately equivalent to three times the total
annual European industrial output in 2006, and also equivalent to a
Mount Pinatubo-1991 eruption every three days.  This outpouring of
sulphur dioxide during unusual weather conditions caused a thick
sulphurous haze to spread across western Europe, resulting in many
thousands of deaths throughout 1783 and the winter of 1784.
The summer of 1783 was the hottest on record and a rare high pressure
zone over Iceland caused the winds to blow to the south west. The
poisonous cloud drifted to Bergen in Norway, then spread to Prague in
the Czech Republic by 17 June, Berlin by 18 June, Paris by 20 June, Le
Havre by 22 June, and to the United Kingdom by 23 June. The fog was so
thick that boats stayed in port, unable to navigate, and the sun was
described as "blood coloured".
CONSEQUENCES IN NORTH AMERICA
In North America, the winter of 1784 was the longest and one of the
coldest on record. It was the longest period of below-zero temperature
in New England, the largest accumulation of snow in New Jersey, and
the longest freezing over of Chesapeake Bay. There was ice skating in
Charleston Harbor, a huge snowstorm hit the south, the Mississippi
River froze at New Orleans, and there was ice in the Gulf of Mexico.
"Year Without a Summer" 1816,
It is now generally thought that the aberrations occurred because of
the 5 April - 15 April 1815 volcanic eruptions of Mount Tambora
on the island of Sumbawa in the Dutch East Indies (in today's
Indonesia) which ejected immense amounts of volcanic dust into the
Other volcanoes were active during the same time frame:
* La Soufrière on Saint Vincent in the Caribbean in 1812
* Mayon in the Philippines in 1814
These other eruptions had already built up a substantial amount of
atmospheric dust. As is common following a massive volcanic eruption,
temperatures fell worldwide owing to less sunlight passing through the
The consequences of a Large Asteroid striking the earth would be the
same as a volcano. After all, that is what caused the extinction of
the dinosaurs and the Ice Age.
Smoke, Ash and Radioactive fallout from a nuclear blast over Soul, S.
Korea, at Lat. 37.35 North, Long. 127 East, would pass over the West
coast of the US in about 2 days, New York in about 3 days, and arrive
over Europe about 5 days after detonation.
Sophistry is not a system of ideas, but a vicious attitude of the
mind. Jacques Maritain