Another idea or two on HFCS
- From: None Given <trigonometry1972@xxxxxxxxx>
- Date: Mon, 25 Jun 2012 09:18:21 -0700 (PDT)
fructose diabetes hydromethylfurfural
That is the search.
Results heated HCFS yields the above chemical
and others which are toxic to bees
and likely humans.
1. Chem Res Toxicol. 1994 May-Jun;7(3):313-8.
Activation of the Maillard reaction product 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural to strong
mutagens via allylic sulfonation and chlorination.
Surh YJ, Tannenbaum SR.
Division of Toxicology,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF), one of the major intermediate
products in the Maillard reaction, is present in a wide variety
of foods. This aldehyde is formed as a decomposition product
of glucose and fructose in foodstuffs subject to cooking
or heat sterilization. It has been found to possess
mutagenic and DNA strand-breaking activity.
However, the mechanisms by which HMF exerts its
genotoxicity remain unclear. The present study
was undertaken to determine if HMF could be metabolically
activated via esterification of the allylic hydroxyl
group. In support of this concept, the chemically
synthesized sulfuric acid ester,5-[(sulfooxy)-methyl]furfural (SMF),
exhibited direct mutagenicity at both thymidine kinase
and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase
loci in human lymphoblasts. This reactive ester also
induced 8-azaguanine-resistant mutants in Salmonella
typhimurium TM677 in a dose-dependent manner.
The intrinsic mutagenicity of SMF was enhanced by
addition of extra chloride ion to the assay
medium. The model allylic derivative,
5-(chloromethyl)furfural, was also
mutagenic and cytotoxic in bacteria, but much more
active than the sulfuric acid ester in this regard.
In contrast to (sulfooxy)methyl and chloromethyl
derivatives of HMF,2-[(sulfooxy)-methyl]-
and 2-(chloromethyl)furans which lack
the aldehyde functionality did not exhibit significant
mutagenicity. Rodent hepatic cytosols contained
sulfotransferase activity responsible for the
formation of the reactive allylic sulfuric acid
ester metabolite from HMF.
PMID: 8075362 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]