Four nutrients in DM model rats with two being B vitamins.

Chinese rat research in a British journal:

Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep;106(5):648-55.
Epub 2011 Mar 22.

Mitochondrial dysfunction in the liver
of type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats:
improvement by a combination of nutrients.

Hao J, Shen W, Sun L, Long J, Sharman E, Shi X, Liu J.

Key Laboratory of Marine Drugs,
Ministry of Education, School of Medicine and
Pharmacy, Ocean University of China, Qingdao,
People's Republic of China.

Treatment with a combination of four nutrients,
i.e. R-α-lipoic acid,
nicotinamide and
biotin, just as with pioglitazone,
significantly improves glucose tolerance, insulin release,
plasma NEFA, skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis
and oxidative stress in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats.
However, it is not known whether treatment with
these nutrients can improve mitochondrial function
and reduce oxidative stress in GK rats. The effects of a
combination of these four nutrients on mitochondrial function,
oxidative stress and apoptosis in GK rat liver were
investigated. Livers of untreated GK rats
showed (1) abnormal changes in the activities
of mitochondrial complexes (decreases in I, III
and IV and increases in II and V), (2)
increases in protein oxidation, (3) decreases in
antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase,
glutathione S-transferase, NADH-quinone
oxidoreductase-1), (4) a decrease in
total antioxidant capacity but increases
in reduced glutathione level and
glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase
expression and (5) significant increases
in apoptosis biomarkers, including expression
of p21 and p53. A 3-month treatment
with the four nutrients significantly
improved most of these abnormalities in GK
rats, and the effects of the nutrient combination
were greater than those of pioglitazone for
most of these indices. These results suggest that
dietary supplementation with nutrients that are
thought to influence mitochondrial
function may be an effective strategy
for improving liver dysfunction in GK
diabetic rats.

PMID: 21418712