Re: Only fibre from whole grains reduces colon cancer risk

GysdeJongh <> wrote:
GysdeJongh wrote:
Chris Malcolm wrote:

something went wrong (?), sorry

[It still seems badly wrong on my newsgroup reader -- the usual
Microsoft CR delineated run-together paragraphs. I had to reformat it
to be able to read it, so here it is reformatted for the benefit of
anyone else for whom it came out unreadable. Plus my comments.]

Here is the free *.pdf of the original article I posted a few days ago :


Dietary fibre, whole grains, and risk of colorectal cancer:
systematicreview and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective
studiesBMJ 2011; 343 doi: 10.1136/bmj.d6617

But you can eat the grain fibre without eating the grain, i.e. get
this fibre on a low carb diet **if** that's what you want, just by using
bran supplements. As many of the people in these studies of the
butyrate benefits did.

[I've emphasised the very important logical operator **if** in the
above quote. Some indignant posters have failed to notice it.]

above is the link to the free *.pdf of this article I
posted several daysago.The article carefully tries to make a
distinction between various *kind* offibers :


Our meta-analysis supports an inverse association between intake of
dietaryfibre, cereal fibre, and whole grains and risk of colorectal
cancer, but wefound no significant evidence for an association with
intake of fibre fromfruit, vegetables, or legumes. Unquote

So, you need whole grain cereals. Supplements don't seem to work,
fibersfrom fruit or vegetables don't seem to work and even the
left-over fibersfrom processed grain don't work. Alan S was a fan of
psillium a fiber from seaweed Iirc which does not seemto work either
(see below) Then time and again food reductionism is shown tobe
ineffective and wrong. (see below)my 0.02 :we don't understand enough
of metabolism (yet) to make suchinferences.

Unwise to jump to this conclusion form one study. This is a disputed
and complex area with some effects being quite specific to certain
types of fibre. There are other studies which do show effects from
extracted fibres such as oat bran, e.g:

Lipid responses of hypercholesterolemic men to oat-bran and wheat-bran intake

"The hypocholesterolemic effects of oat bran (OB) have been recently
challenged. To carefully document the hypocholesterolemic effects of
OB, 20 hypercholesterolemic men admitted to a metabolic ward were
randomly allocated to either OB or wheat bran (WB) for 21 d after a
7-d control-diet period. Control and treatment diets were designed to
be identical in energy content and nutrients, differing only in the
amount of soluble fiber. After 21 d, OB significantly decreased total
cholesterol by 12.8% (P less than 0.001), low-density-lipoprotein
cholesterol by 12.1% (P less than 0.004), and apolipoprotein B-100 by
13.7% (P less than 0.001) whereas WB had no significant effect. High-
density-lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I did not change
significantly in either group. Serum triglycerides decreased by 10% in
both groups but the decrease was only significant (P less than 0.04)
in WB subjects. OB but not WB significantly reduced total cholesterol
and other atherogenic lipoprotein fractions independent of other
dietary changes."


Ann Fam Med. 2008 Mar-Apr;6(2):100-6.Effect of psyllium fiber
supplementation on C-reactive protein: the trial toreduce inflammatory
markers (TRIM).


PURPOSE:Recent evidence supports a significant association betweenthe
intake of dietary fiber and levels of inflammatory
markers. Theobjective of this study was to determine whether daily
fiber supplementationwould reduce levels of inflammatory markers.

METHODS: This study was a prospective randomized controlled trial at a
single university medicalcenter. Participants were overweight or obese
adults with no history ofheart disease. The intervention was psyllium
supplementation at either 7 or14 g/d for 3 months compared with no
supplements in a controlgroup. The mainoutcome measure was change in
level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein(hsCRP) concentration;
secondary outcomes included changes in interleukin-6(IL-6) levels,
fibrinogen levels, and white bloodcell (WBC) count. Protocolcompleters
attended at least 2 visits and took more than 75% of theprescribed
fiber dose.

RESULTS: In this intent-to-treat analysis (n = 158),there were no
significant differences between either of the 2 treatmentgroups and
the control groupin the amount of change in CRP, fibrinogen, orIL-6
levels or in WBC count(P>.05). In the analysis of protocol
completers(n = 132), there also were no significant differences
between the groupsexcept for a small decrease infibrinogen level in
the high-fiber group (-6mg/dL [-0.18 micromol/L]compared with 13 mg/dL
[0.38 micromol/L] in thecontrol group, P<.05).

CONCLUSION: **Psyllium fiber supplementation did not significantly
reduce CRP levels** in overweight or obese individuals in this trial,
and changes in othermarkers were not consistent. Further research is
needed to determine whetherother fibers or nutrients can reduce
inflammatory markers.

PMID: 18332401
Am J Public Health. 2008 Jul;98(7):1171-6.

Note that some of the effects of these various reistant nutrients on
the colon depend of the specific type of nutrient. For example the
previous study I cited showed an effect from oat bran and no effect
from wheat bran. This is a test of a specific effect from a specific
resistant nutrient. (Maybe I'm misusing the term "nutrient" here? I
mean stuff you eat the you don't directly digest, but is left over for
possible fermentation-type digestion by the colonic bacteria.)

Multivitamin-mineral supplements in the Older Americans Act
NutritionProgram: not a one-size-fits-all quick fix.


We challenge the suggestion of Congress that the Older AmericansAct
(OAA)Nutrition Program should provide multivitamin-mineral
supplements(MVMs) inaddition to meals.**MVMs are not a quick fix for
poor diets** They do not contain calories, protein, essential fatty
acids, or fiber, nordo they adequately address nutritional gaps of
some vitamins andminerals. Older adults with chronic health conditions
who take multiple medicationsare at greater risk than the general
healthy population for nutrient-drug interactions and toxicity. The OAA
Nutrition Program is not an appropriate venue to indiscriminately
distribute MVMs, because there is insufficient evidence of their
benefits and safety. The program's limited funds and efforts should
instead be directed to nutrient-dense healthymeals, qualityfood
service, and greater accessibility to individualizednutrition

PMID: 18511719


I agree in general with your scepticism towards supplements and
extracts compared to the original whole food sources, but suspect
there's some medical politics behind this cautious caveat which seems
to have been carefully worded by lwayers. There are many studies which
have shown the benefits of some vit etc supps in the elderly. For

"Effects of vitamin B12, folate, and vitamin B6 supplements in elderly
people with normal serum vitamin concentrations



"In a prospective, multicentre, double-blind controlled study, the
effect of an intramuscular vitamin supplement containing 1 mg vitamin
B12, 1 mg folate, and 5 mg vitamin B6 on serum concentrations of
methylmalonic acid (MMA), homocysteine (HCYS), 2-methylcitric acid
(2-MCA), and cystathionine (CYSTA) was compared with that of placebo
in 175 elderly subjects living at home and 110 in hospital. Vitamin
supplement and placebo were administered eight times over a 3-week
period. Vitamin supplement but not placebo significantly reduced all
four metabolite concentrations at the end of the study in both study
groups. The maximum effects of treatment were usually seen within 5-12
days. Initially elevated metabolite concentrations returned to normal
in a higher proportion of the vitamin than of the placebo group: 92%
vs 20% for HYCS; 82% vs 20% for MMA; 62% vs 25% for 2-MCA; and 42% vs
25% for CYSTA.

"The response rate to vitamin supplements supports the notion that
metabolic evidence of vitamin deficiency is common in the elderly,
even in the presence of normal serum vitamin levels. Metabolite assays
permit identification of elderly subjects who may benefit from vitamin

Chris Malcolm