Would you comment, please, on the language in which Abu al-Mawardi wrote
and whether any
of his original publications are extant. If so please describe where they
can be viewed.

John Berg
The fact that in Mohammedan law every woman must belong to some man as his
absolute property - either as a child, a wife, or a concubine - must
delay the final extinction of slavery until the faith of Islam has
ceased to be a great power among men. --W. Churchill

"friend" <hurrah@xxxxxxxxxxx> wrote in message
> Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habib al-Mawardi was born at Basrah
> in 972 C.E. He was educated at first in Basrah where, after completion
> of his basic education, he learned Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) from
> the jurist Abu al-Wahid al-Simari. He then went to Baghdad for advanced
> studies under Sheikh Abd al-Hamid and Abdallah al-Baqi. His proficiency
> in jurisprudence Ethics, Political science and literature proved useful
> in securing a respectable career for him. After his initial appointment
> as Qadi (Judge), he was gradually promoted to higher offices, till he
> became the Chief Justice at Baghdad. The Abbasid Caliph al-Qaim bi Amr
> Allah appointed him as his roving ambassador and sent him to a number
> of countries as the head of special missions. In this capacity he
> played a key role in establishing harmonious relations between the
> declining Abbasid Caliphate and the rising powers of Buwahids and
> Seljukes. He was favoured with rich gifts and tributes by most Sultans
> of the time. He was still in Baghdad when it was taken over by
> Buwahids. Al-Mawardi died in 1058 C.E.
> Al-Mawardi was a great jurist, mohaddith, sociologist and an expert in
> Political Science. He was a jurist in the school of Fiqh and his book
> Al-Hawi on the principles of jurisprudence is held in high repute.
> His contribution in political science and sociology comprises a number
> of monumental books, the most famous of which are Kitab al-Ahkam
> al-Sultania, Qanun al-Wazarah, and Kitab Nasihat al-Mulk. The books
> discuss the principles of political science, with special reference to
> the functions and duties of the caliphs, the chief minister, other
> ministers, relationships between various elements of public and
> govemment and measures to strengthen the government and ensure victory
> in war. Two of these books, al-Ahkam al-Sultania and Qanun al-Wazarah
> have been published and also translated into various languages. He is
> considered as being the author/supporter of the 'Doctrine of Necessity'
> in political science. He was thus in favour of a strong caliphate and
> discouraged unlimited powers delegated to the Governors, which tended
> to create chaos. On the other hand, he has laid down clear principles
> for election of the caliph and qualities of the voters, chief among
> which are attainment of a degree of intellectual level and purity of
> character.
> In ethics, he wrote Kitab Aadab al-Dunya wa al-Din, which became a
> widely popular book on the subject and is still read in some Islamic
> countries.
> Al-Mawardi has been considered as one of the most famous thinkers in
> political science in the middle ages. His original work influenced the
> development of this science, together with the science of sociology,
> which was further developed later on by Ibn Khaldun.